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Plos One : Avoiding Pitfalls of Internal Controls ; Validation of ...

By: Sergio T. Ferreira

Description : Background : Housekeeping genes have been commonly used as reference to normalize gene expression and protein content data because of its presumed constitutive expression. In this paper, we challenge the consensual idea that housekeeping genes are reliable controls for expression studies in the retina through the investigation of a panel of reference genes potentially suitable for analysis of different stages of retinal development. Methodology/Principal Fi...

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Plos One : Joint Effect of Genetic and Lifestyle Risk Factors on T...

By: Qi Sun

Description : More than 40 genetic susceptibility loci have been reported for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recently, the combined effect of genetic variants has been investigated by calculating a genetic risk score. We evaluated 36 genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified SNPs in 2,679 T2D cases and 3322 controls in middle-age Han Chinese. Fourteen SNPs were significantly associated with T2D in analysis adjusted for age, sex and BMI. We calculated two genetic risk score...

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Plos One : Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Health Services Use Among...

By: Malcolm Gracie Semple

Description : SHS exposure at home was associated with health services use among adolescent current smokers. Adolescent smokers should be aware of the harm of SHS in addition to that from their own smoking. The evidence helps health care professionals to advise adolescent smokers to avoid SHS exposure and stop smoking.

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Plos One : Collagen Metabolism of Human Osteoarthritic Articular C...

By: Nikos K. Karamanos

Description : Destruction of articular cartilage is a characteristic feature of osteoarthritis (OA). Collagen hydrolysates are mixtures of collagen peptides and have gained huge public attention as nutriceuticals used for prophylaxis of OA. Here, we evaluated for the first time whether different bovine collagen hydrolysate preparations indeed modulate the metabolism of collagen and proteoglycans from human OA cartilage explants and determined the chemical composition of ...

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Plos One : Lack of Association Between Nlgn3, Nlgn4, Shank2 and Sh...

By: Chunyu Liu

Description : Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication, absence or delay in language development, and stereotyped or repetitive behaviors. Genetic studies show that neurexinneuroligin (NRXN-NLGN) pathway genes contribute susceptibility to ASD, which include cell adhesion molecules NLGN3, NLGN4 and scaffolding proteins SHANK2 and SHANK3. Neuroligin proteins play an important role in synaptic function...

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Plos One : True 3Q Chromosomal Amplification in Squamous Cell Lung...

By: Ramon Andrade De Mello

Description : Squamous lung carcinoma lacks specific ‘‘ad hoc’’ therapies. Amplification of chromosome 3q is the most common genomic aberration and this region harbours genes having role as novel targets for therapeutics. There is no standard definition on how to score and report 3q amplification. False versus true 3q chromosomal amplification in squamous cell lung carcinoma may have tremendous impact on trials involving drugs which target DNA zones mapping on 3q. Forty ...

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Plos One : Proximal Arterial Occlusion in Acute Ischemic Stroke wi...

By: Jean-claude Baron

Description : This study demonstrates that symptomatic arterial occlusion may be an important predictor of END in patients with acute mild stroke. It may therefore be important to consider that acute ischemic stroke with symptomatic arterial occlusion and low NIHSS scores may not represent mild stroke in acute periods

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Plos One : Il23Rgene Confers Susceptibility to Ankylosing Spondyli...

By: James T. Rosenbaum

Description : In this study, the results suggested that the rs17375018 of IL23R was positively associated with HLA-B27- positive AS and that the rs17375018 GG of IL-23R was associated with AS concomitant with uveitis. We found no evidence for an association between the other two SNPs of IL-23R and AS.

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Plos One : Periostin Contributes to the Acquisition of Multipotent...

By: Edna Cukierman

Description : Periostin (POSTN), a recently characterised matricellular protein, is frequently dysregulated in various malignant cancers and promotes tumor metastatic growth. POSTN plays a critical role in the crosstalk between murine breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) and their niche to permit metastatic colonization. However, whether pro-metastatic capability of POSTN is associated with multipotent potentials of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has not been documented. Here ...

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Plos One : Rectal Transmission of Transmitted, Volume 8

By: Gilda Tachedjian

Description : Rectal microbicides are being developed to prevent new HIV infections in both men and women. We focused our in vivo preclinical efficacy study on rectally-applied tenofovir. BLT humanized mice (n = 43) were rectally inoculated with either the primary isolate HIV-1JRCSF or the MSM-derived transmitted/founder (T/F) virus HIV-1THRO within 30 minutes following treatment with topical 1% tenofovir or vehicle. Under our experimental conditions, in the absence of d...

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Plos One : Differentiated Neuroprogenitor Cells Incubated with Hum...

By: Ilya Ulasov

Description : Several studies have demonstrated the potential for vector-mediated gene transfer to the brain. Helper-dependent (HD) human (HAd) and canine (CAV-2) adenovirus, and VSV-G-pseudotyped self-inactivating HIV-1 vectors (LV) effectively transduce human brain cells and their toxicity has been partly analysed. However, their effect on the brain homeostasis is far from fully defined, especially because of the complexity of the central nervous system (CNS). With the...

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Plos One : High Resolution Melting Analysis is a More Sensitive an...

By: Randall P. Niedz

Description : High resolution melting curve analysis (HRM) has been used as an efficient, accurate and cost-effective tool to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or insertions or deletions (INDELs). However, its efficiency, accuracy and applicability to discriminate microsatellite polymorphism have not been extensively assessed. The traditional protocols used for SSR genotyping include PCR amplification of the DNA fragment and the separation of the fragments on...

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Plos One : Effects of Exposure, Diet, and Thermoregulation on Feca...

By: Frank Seebacher

Description : We examined fecal glucocorticoid (fGC) measures of nutrition and thermoregulatory demands on wild bears in Glacier National Park, Montana, and assessed how these measures changed in samples left in the field. Both ambient temperature and exposure can impact thermoregulation and sample degradation. Bear diets vary markedly with season, affecting body condition and thus fGC. We collected fecal samples during September and October, 2001, when ambient temperatu...

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Plos One : No Evidence of Presence of Parvovirus 4 in a Swedish Co...

By: Cristina Costa

Description : The recently discovered human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) has been associated with seropositivity for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. High prevalence is seen especially in intravenous drug users. The virus has been detected in blood products and persons who have been repeatedly transfused have shown to be a risk-group. Furthermore, reports from different parts of the world suggesting a prevalence ranging from zero to one thir...

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Plos One : Direct Writing of Flexible Electronics Through Room Tem...

By: Arum Han

Description : The present method opens the way to directly and quickly writing flexible electronics which can be as simple as signing a name or drawing a picture on the paper. The unique merit of the GaIn10-based liquid metal ink lies in its low melting temperature, well controlled wettability, high electrical conductivity and good biocompability. The new electronics writing strategy and basic principle has generalized purpose and can be extended to more industrial areas, even daily life.

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Plos One : Differential Roles of Hath1, Muc2 and P27Kip1 in Relati...

By: Arianna L. Kim

Description : Hath1, a bHLH transcription factor negatively regulated by the c-secretase-dependent Notch pathway, is required for intestinal secretory cell differentiation. Our aim was fourfold : 1) determine whether Hath1 is able to alter the phenotype of colon cancer cells that are committed to a differentiated phenotype, 2) determine whether the Hath1-dependent alteration of differentiation is coupled to a restriction of anchorage-dependent growth, 3) decipher the res...

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Plos One : Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Enhances Calcium Regu...

By: James West

Description : Neurotrophins (NTs), which play an integral role in neuronal development and function, have been found in non-neuronal tissue (including lung), but their role is still under investigation. Recent reports show that NTs such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as well as NT receptors are expressed in human airway smooth muscle (ASM). However, their function is still under investigation. We hypothesized that NTs regulate ASM intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i...

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Plos One : Clinical Value of the Ottawa Ankle Rules for Diagnosis ...

By: Alejandro Lucia

Description : The OAR are applicable in the Chinese population, and have high sensitivity and modest specificity for the diagnosis of fractures associated with acute ankle injury. They may detect some occult fractures of the malleoli that are not visible on radiographs

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Plos One : Numerical and Series Solutions for Stagnation-point Flo...

By: Jeongmin Hong

Description : This investigation is concerned with the stagnation-point flow of nanofluid past an exponentially stretching sheet. The presence of Brownian motion and thermophoretic effects yields a coupled nonlinear boundary-value problem (BVP). Similarity transformations are invoked to reduce the partial differential equations into ordinary ones. Local similarity solutions are obtained by homotopy analysis method (HAM), which enables us to investigate the effects of par...

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Plos One : Rapid, Facile Detection of Heterodimer Partners for Tar...

By: Karl-wilhelm Koch

Description : Potentially immeasurable heterodimer combinations of human G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) result in a great deal of physiological diversity and provide a new opportunity for drug discovery. However, due to the existence of numerous combinations, the sets of GPCR dimers are almost entirely unknown and thus their dominant roles are still poorly understood. Thus, the identification of GPCR dimer pairs has been a major challenge. Here, we established a spe...

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