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Plos One : Gadd153 and Nf-kb Crosstalk Regulates 27- Hydroxycholes...

By: Huaibin Cai

Description : b-amyloid (Ab) peptide, accumulation of which is a culprit for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), is derived from the initial cleavage of amyloid precursor protein by the aspartyl protease BACE1. Identification of cellular mechanisms that regulate BACE1 production is of high relevance to the search for potential disease-modifying therapies that inhibit BACE1 to reduce Ab accumulation and AD progression. In the present study, we show that the cholesterol oxidation pr...

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Plos One : Real-time Placental Perfusion on Contrast-enhanced Ultr...

By: Colette Kanellopoulos-langevin

Description : CEUS is feasible to depict real-time sequence and quantitative parameters of perfusion in different portion of placenta at different gestational time in a rat model.

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Plos One : the Mitochondrial Na+, Volume 7

By: Valdur Saks

Description : Mitochondria mediate dual metabolic and Ca2+ shuttling activities. While the former is required for Ca2+ signalling linked to insulin secretion, the role of the latter in b cell function has not been well understood, primarily because the molecular identity of the mitochondrial Ca2+ transporters were elusive and the selectivity of their inhibitors was questionable. This study focuses on NCLX, the recently discovered mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger that is ...

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Plos One : Linc Complexes Mediate the Positioning of Cone Photorec...

By: Sang-chul Nam

Description : It has long been observed that many neuronal types position their nuclei within restricted cytoplasmic boundaries. A striking example is the apical localization of cone photoreceptors nuclei at the outer edge of the outer nuclear layer of mammalian retinas. Yet, little is known about how such nuclear spatial confinement is achieved and further maintained. Linkers of the Nucleoskeleton to the Cytoskeleton (LINC complexes) consist of evolutionary-conserved ma...

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Plos One : Oxidized Phospholipids Induce Ceramide Accumulation in ...

By: Prasun K Datta

Description : Oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs), including 1-palmitoyl-2-glutaroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PGPC) and 1- palmitoyl-2-oxovaleroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC) are among several biologically active derivatives that are generated during oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs). These OxPLs are factors contributing to proatherogenic effects of oxidized LDLs (OxLDLs), including inflammation, proliferation and death of vascular cells. OxLDL also eli...

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Plos One : Evaluating the Accuracy of Morphological Identification...

By: Myron Peck

Description : Due to insufficient morphological diagnostic characters in larval fishes, it is easy to misidentify them and difficult to key to the genus or species level. The identification results from different laboratories are often inconsistent. This experiment aims to find out, by applying DNA barcoding, how inconsistent the identifications can be among larval fish taxonomists. One hundred morphotypes of larval fishes were chosen as test specimens. The fishes were c...

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Plos One : S100P Expression is a Novel Prognostic Factor in Hepato...

By: Yuan-jia Chen

Description : The calcium-binding protein S100P is expressed in a variety of human cancer cells and is important in cancer cell growth and invasion. Using differential display, we found S100P is overexpressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We examined the expression of 305 unifocal, primary HCC tumors using immunohistochemistry. The S100P protein was expressed in 173 of the 305 (56.7%) HCC tumors. The expression of S100P correlated with female sex (P=0.0162), h...

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Plos One : Tfap2B Influences the Effect of Dietary Fat on Weight L...

By: Daniel Tomé

Description : Background : Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction. Methods and Findings : Randomized controlled trial of 771 obese adults. (Registration : ISRCTN25867281.) One SNP was selected for replication in another weight loss intervention study of 934 obese adul...

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Plos One : Efficient Arsenic Metabolism — the as3Mt Haplotype is A...

By: Brock C. Christensen

Description : Arsenic is a very potent toxicant. One major susceptibility factor for arsenic-related toxicity is the efficiency of arsenic metabolism. The efficiency, in turn, is associated with non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the arsenic methyltransferase AS3MT on chromosome 10q24. However, the mechanism of action for these SNPs is not yet clarified. Here, we assessed the influence of genetic variation in AS3MT on DNA methylation and gene expression...

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Plos One : Brain–immune Interaction Accompanying Odor-evoked Autob...

By: Oscar Arias-carrion

Description : The phenomenon in which a certain smell evokes a specific memory is known as the Proust phenomenon. Odorevoked autobiographic memories are more emotional than those elicited by other sensory stimuli. The results of our previous study indicated that odor-evoked autobiographic memory accompanied by positive emotions has remarkable effects on various psychological and physiological activities, including the secretion of cytokines, which are immune-signaling mo...

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Plos One : Characterization of the Arabidopsis Thaliana E3 Ubiquit...

By: Miguel a Blazquez

Description : Protein ubiquitination leading to degradation by the proteasome is an important mechanism in regulating key cellular functions. Protein ubiquitination is carried out by a three step process involving ubiquitin (Ub) activation by a E1 enzyme, the transfer of Ub to a protein E2, finally an ubiquitin ligase E3 catalyzes the transfer of the Ub peptide to an acceptor protein. The E3 component is responsible for the specific recognition of the target, making the ...

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Plos One : Intra- and Inter-frequency Brain Network Structure in H...

By: Satoru Hayasaka

Description : Empirical studies over the past two decades have provided support for the hypothesis that schizophrenia is characterized by altered connectivity patterns in functional brain networks. These alterations have been proposed as genetically mediated diagnostic biomarkers and are thought to underlie altered cognitive functions such as working memory. However, the nature of this dysconnectivity remains far from understood. In this study, we perform an extensive an...

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Plos One : Association Between Common Variants Near Lbx1 and Adole...

By: Nicholas John Timpson

Description : This study shows that the genetic variants near the LBX1 gene are associated with AIS susceptibility in Chinese Han population. It successfully replicates the results of the GWAS, which was performed in a Japanese population.

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Plos One : Arf6 Regulates Neuron Differentiation Through Glucosylc...

By: Arenkiel Benjamin

Description : The small GTPase ADP ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) mediates endocytosis and has in addition been shown to regulate neuron differentiation. Here we investigated whether ARF6 promotes differentiation of Neuro-2a neuronal cells by modifying the cellular lipid composition. We showed that knockdown of ARF6 by siRNA in Neuro-2a cells increased neuronal outgrowth as expected. ARF6 knockdown also resulted in increased glucosylceramide levels and decreased sphingomye...

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Plos One : Crumbs Affects Protein Dynamics in Anterior Regions of ...

By: Sang-chul Nam

Description : Maintenance of apico-basal polarity is essential for epithelial integrity and requires particular reinforcement during tissue morphogenesis, when cells are reorganised, undergo shape changes and remodel their junctions. It is well established that epithelial integrity during morphogenetic processes depends on the dynamic exchange of adherens junction components, but our knowledge on the dynamics of other proteins and their dynamics during these processes is...

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Plos One : Broad Distribution of Tpi-gapdh Fusion Proteins Among E...

By: Ross Frederick Waller

Description : Glycolysis is a central metabolic pathway in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. In eukaryotes, the textbook view is that glycolysis occurs in the cytosol. However, fusion proteins comprised of two glycolytic enzymes, triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), were found in members of the stramenopiles (diatoms and oomycetes) and shown to possess amino-terminal mitochondrial targeting signals. Here we show that mitoc...

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Plos One : Sequencing and Characterisation of an Extensive Atlanti...

By: Sofia Consuegra

Description : Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), a member of the family Salmonidae, is a totemic species of ecological and cultural significance that is also economically important in terms of both sports fisheries and aquaculture. These factors have promoted the continuous development of genomic resources for this species, furthering both fundamental and applied research. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small endogenous non-coding RNA molecules that control spatial and temporal ex...

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Plos One : Pathway Analysis for Genome-wide Association Study of L...

By: Ge Zhang

Description : Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a number of genetic variants associated with lung cancer risk. However, these loci explain only a small fraction of lung cancer hereditability and other variants with weak effect may be lost in the GWAS approach due to the stringent significance level after multiple comparison correction. In this study, in order to identify important pathways involving the lung carcinogenesis, we performed a two-stage p...

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Plos One : Drosophila Zpr1 Zinc Finger Protein 1 is Required Downs...

By: Andreas Bergmann

Description : The cellular and molecular cues involved in creating branched tubular networks that transport liquids or gases throughout an organism are not well understood. To identify factors required in branching and lumen formation of Drosophila tracheal terminal cells, a model for branched tubular networks, we performed a forward genetic-mosaic screen to isolate mutations affecting these processes. From this screen, we have identified the first Drosophila mutation in...

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Plos One : Self-affirmation Improves Problem-solving Under Stress,...

By: Jose Cesar Perales

Description : High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problemsolving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed parti...

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