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Plos One : Observing Expertise-related Actions Leads to Perfect Ti...

By: Warren H. Meck

Description : The estimation of the time of exposure of a picture portraying an action increases as a function of the amount of movement implied in the action represented. This effect suggests that the perceiver creates an internal embodiment of the action observed as if internally simulating the entire movement sequence. Little is known however about the timing accuracy of these internal action simulations, specifically whether they are affected by the level of familiar...

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Plos One : Identification of a Drosophila Glucose Receptor Using C...

By: Wolfgang Meyerhof

Description : Evaluation of food compounds by chemosensory cells is essential for animals to make appropriate feeding decisions. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, structurally diverse chemicals are detected by multimeric receptors composed of members of a large family of Gustatory receptor (Gr) proteins. Putative sugar and bitter receptors are expressed in distinct subsets of Gustatory Receptor Neurons (GRN) of taste sensilla, thereby assigning distinct taste qua...

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Plos One : Effects of Molecular Crowding on the Dynamics of Intrin...

By: Yaakov Koby Levy

Description : Inside cells, the concentration of macromolecules can reach up to 400 g/L. In such crowded environments, proteins are expected to behave differently than in vitro. It has been shown that the stability and the folding rate of a globular protein can be altered by the excluded volume effect produced by a high density of macromolecules. However, macromolecular crowding effects on intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are less explored. These proteins can be ...

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Plos One : Gene Expression Profiles Deciphering Leaf Senescence Va...

By: Jinfa Zhang

Description : Leaf senescence varies greatly among genotypes of cotton (Gossypium hirsutium L), possibly due to the different expression of senescence-related genes. To determine genes involved in leaf senescence, we performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling of the main-stem leaves of an early- (K1) and a late-senescence (K2) cotton line at 110 day after planting (DAP) using the Solexa technology. The profiling analysis indicated that 1132 genes were up-regulated a...

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Plos One : Thymoquinone Inhibits Autophagy and Induces Cathepsin-m...

By: Shawn B. Bratton

Description : Glioblastoma is the most aggressive and common type of malignant brain tumor in humans, with a median survival of 15 months. There is a great need for more therapies for the treatment of glioblastoma. Naturally occurring phytochemicals have received much scientific attention because many exhibit potent tumor killing action. Thymoquinone (TQ) is the bioactive compound of the Nigella sativa seed oil. TQ has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-neoplastic ...

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Plos One : the Prognosis of Allocentric and Egocentric Neglect ; E...

By: Jean-claude Baron

Description : We contrasted the neuroanatomical substrates of sub-acute and chronic visuospatial deficits associated with different aspects of unilateral neglect using computed tomography scans acquired as part of routine clinical diagnosis. Voxel-wise statistical analyses were conducted on a group of 160 stroke patients scanned at a sub-acute stage. Lesion-deficit relationships were assessed across the whole brain, separately for grey and white matter. We assessed lesio...

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Plos One : Natural Variation in Seed Very Long Chain Fatty Acid Co...

By: Wolf-hagen Schunck

Description : Oil from oleaginous seeds is mainly composed of triacylglycerols. Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) are major constituents of triacylglycerols in many seed oils and represent valuable feedstock for industrial purposes. To identify genetic factors governing natural variability in VLCFA biosynthesis, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis using a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between accessions Bay-0 and Shahdara was performed i...

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Plos One : Assessing Water Filtration and Safe Storage in Househol...

By: D. William Cameron

Description : In this population living with HIV/AIDS, a water filter combined with safe storage was used correctly and consistently, was highly effective in improving drinking water quality, and was protective against diarrhea

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Plos One : Improving Case-based Reasoning Systems by Combining K-n...

By: Randen Lee Patterson

Description : The results show that our suggested approach, where the K-NN algorithm relies on both weighted attributes and cases, can efficiently deal with non relevant attributes, whereas the four other approaches suffer from this kind of noisy setups. The robustness of this approach suggests interesting perspectives for medical problem solving tools using CBR methodology.

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Plos One : a Comparison of the Inflammatory and Proteolytic Effect...

By: Thomas H. Thatcher

Description : Biomass activates similar pathogenic processes seen in cigarette smoke exposure that are known to result in the disruption of lung structure. These findings provide biological evidence that public health interventions are needed to address the harm associated with the use of this fuel source.

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Plos One : the Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Mating Type Locus Mat Cont...

By: Sung-hwan Yun

Description : Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a fungal plant pathogen and the causal agent of lettuce drop, an economically important disease of California lettuce. The structure of the S. sclerotiorum mating type locus MAT has previously been reported and consists of two idiomorphs that are fused end-to-end as in other homothallics. We investigated the diversity of S. sclerotiorum MAT using a total of 283 isolates from multiple hosts and locations, and identified a novel MA...

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Plos One : in Situ Identification of Cd44+, Volume 7

By: Aedín C. Culhane

Description : Breast cancer cells with the CD44+/CD242 phenotype have been reported to be tumourigenic due to their enhanced capacity for cancer development and their self-renewal potential. The identification of human tumourigenic breast cancer cells in surgical samples has recently received increased attention due to the implications for prognosis and treatment, although limitations exist in the interpretation of these studies. To better identify the CD44+/CD242 cells ...

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Plos One : a Mouse Model for Studying the Clearance of Hepatitis B...

By: Wang-shick Ryu

Description : Hepatitis B virus(HBV) infection remains a global problem, despite the effectiveness of the Hepatitis B vaccine in preventing infection. The resolution of Hepatitis B virus infection has been believed to be attributable to virus-specific immunity. In vivo direct evaluation of anti-HBV immunity in the liver is currently not possible. We have developed a new assay system that detects HBV clearance in the liver after the hydrodynamic transfer of a reporter gen...

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Plos One : Innate and Introduced Resistance Traits in Genetically ...

By: Samuel St. Clair

Description : Genetic modifications of trees may provide many benefits, e.g. increase production, and mitigate climate change and herbivore impacts on forests. However, genetic modifications sometimes result in unintended effects on innate traits involved in plant-herbivore interactions. The importance of intentional changes in plant defence relative to unintentional changes and the natural variation among clones used in forestry has not been evaluated. By a combination ...

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Plos One : Dissociated Neural Processing for Decisions in Managers...

By: Carles Soriano-mas

Description : Functional neuroimaging studies of decision-making so far mainly focused on decisions under uncertainty or negotiation with other persons. Dual process theory assumes that, in such situations, decision making relies on either a rapid intuitive, automated or a slower rational processing system. However, it still remains elusive how personality factors or professional requirements might modulate the decision process and the underlying neural mechanisms. Since...

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Plos One : Implicit Motivational Impact of Pictorial Health Warnin...

By: Christine Miaskowski

Description : Health warning labels are one of the key components of the integrated approach to control the global tobacco epidemic. The evidence presented in this study adds to the understanding of how implicit responses to pictorial warnings may contribute to behavioral change.

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Plos One : Hierarchic Stochastic Modelling Applied to Intracellula...

By: Jordi Garcia-ojalvo

Description : Important biological processes like cell signalling and gene expression have noisy components and are very complex at the same time. Mathematical analysis of such systems has often been limited to the study of isolated subsystems, or approximations are used that are difficult to justify. Here we extend a recently published method (Thurley and Falcke, PNAS 2011) which is formulated in observable system configurations instead of molecular transitions. This re...

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Plos One : Chronic Levodopa Administration Followed by a Washout P...

By: R. Lee Mosley

Description : In addition to the medium spiny neurons the mammalian striatum contains a small population of GABAergic interneurons that are immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), which dramatically increases after lesions to the nigrostriatal pathway and striatal delivery of neurotrophic factors. The regulatory effect of levodopa (L-Dopa) on the number and phenotype of these cells is less well understood. Eleven macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were included. Group ...

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Plos One : Vitamin D 25Ohd Serum Seasonality in the United States,...

By: Zulfiqar A. Bhutta

Description : Serum vitamin D levels can be modeled as a function of date, working through a double-log transformation of minimal solar airmass (easily calculated from solar altitude, retrievable from an online solar altitude/azimuth table).

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Plos One : Oxygen and Carbon Isotope Variations in a Modern Rodent...

By: Andrew A. Farke

Description : Rodents have a high potential for the reconstruction of palaeoenvironmental conditions by means of bioapatite d18O and d13C analysis. No significant disadvantages compared to larger mammals were observed. However, for refined palaeoenvironmental reconstructions a better understanding of stable isotope signatures in modern analogous communities and potential biases due to seasonality effects, population dynamics and tissue formation rates is necessary.

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