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Plos One : Validity and Reliability of Enzyme Immunoassays Using L...

By: Chien-sheng Chen

Description : ELISA tests using L. major or L. infantum antigens have similar accuracy and reliability. Our results do not support the substitution of the L. major antigen of the ELISA test currently used for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

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Plos One : Neoplastic and Stromal Cells Contribute to an Extracell...

By: Aedín C. Culhane

Description : We recently showed that differential expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) genes delineates four subgroups of breast carcinomas (ECM1, -2, -3- and -4) with different clinical outcome. To further investigate the characteristics of ECM signature and its impact on tumor progression, we conducted unsupervised clustering analyses in 6 additional independent datasets of invasive breast tumors from different platforms for a total of 643 samples. Use of four dif...

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Plos One : Fossil Worm Burrows Reveal Very Early Terrestrial Anima...

By: Richard J. Butler

Description : The widespread mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous caused world-wide disruption of ecosystems, and faunal responses to the one-two punch of severe environmental perturbation and ecosystem collapse are still unclear. Here we report the discovery of in situ terrestrial fossil burrows from just above the impact-defined Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary in southwestern North Dakota. The crisscrossing networks of horizontal burrows occur at the inte...

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Plos One : Alterations in Bone and Erythropoiesis in Hemolytic Ane...

By: Valery Combes

Description : Sustained erythropoiesis and concurrent bone marrow hyperplasia are proposed to be responsible for low bone mass density (BMD) in chronic hemolytic pathologies. As impaired erythropoiesis is also frequent in these conditions, we hypothesized that free heme may alter marrow and bone physiology in these disorders. Bone status and bone marrow erythropoiesis were studied in mice with hemolytic anemia (HA) induced by phenylhydrazine (PHZ) or Plasmodium infection...

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Plos One : Comparative Performance of Electrochemiluminescence Imm...

By: Patrick S. Sullivan

Description : Caution is needed before shifting from 3rd to 4th generation HIV tests. Since none of these tests are perfect, different geographic and ethnic area probably require different considerations with regard to HIV testing methods, taking into account the local conditions.

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Plos One : Quantitative Label-free Proteomics for Discovery of Bio...

By: Dulce Elena Casarini

Description : Quantitative label-free LC-MS/MS can measure scores of CSF proteins with low technical variability and can segregate samples according to desired criteria. Thus, this technique shows potential for biomarker discovery for neurological diseases.

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Plos One : Programmable in Vivo Selection of Arbitrary Dna Sequenc...

By: Mark Isalan

Description : The extraordinary fidelity, sensory and regulatory capacity of natural intracellular machinery is generally confined to their endogenous environment. Nevertheless, synthetic bio-molecular components have been engineered to interface with the cellular transcription, splicing and translation machinery in vivo by embedding functional features such as promoters, introns and ribosome binding sites, respectively, into their design. Tapping and directing the power...

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Plos One : Transgenic Expression of Foxm1 Promotes Endothelial Rep...

By: Christina Lynn Addison

Description : Enhancing endothelial barrier integrity for the treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) is an emerging novel therapeutic strategy. Our previous studies have demonstrated the essential role of FoxM1 in mediating endothelial regeneration and barrier repair following lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury. However, it remains unclear whether FoxM1 expression is sufficient to promote endothelial repair in experimental models of sepsis. Here, employing the FoxM1 tr...

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Plos One : Estimating Microtubule Distributions from 2D Immunofluo...

By: Jonathan A. Coles

Description : Microtubules are filamentous structures that are involved in several important cellular processes, including cell division, cellular structure and mechanics, and intracellular transportation. Little is known about potential differences in microtubule distributions within and across cell lines. Here we describe a method to estimate information pertaining to 3D microtubule distributions from 2D fluorescence images. Our method allows for quantitative compariso...

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Plos One : Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Upregulates Peroxisomal F...

By: Ralf Andreas Linker

Description : In X-ALD, mutation/deletion of ALD gene (ABCD1) and the resultant very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) derangement has dramatically opposing effects in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. While loss of Abcd1 in astrocytes produces a robust inflammatory response, the oligodendrocytes undergo cell death leading to demyelination in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). The mechanisms of these distinct pathways in the two cell types are not well understood. Here, w...

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Plos One : Functional Complementation of a Model Target to Study V...

By: Michael Schindler

Description : HIV-1 forms infectious particles with Murine Leukemia virus (MLV) Env, but not with the closely related Gibbon ape Leukemia Virus (GaLV) Env. We have determined that the incompatibility between HIV-1 and GaLV Env is primarily caused by the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu, which prevents GaLV Env from being incorporated into particles. We have characterized the ‘Vpu sensitivity sequence’ in the cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD) of GaLV Env using a chimeric MLV Env w...

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Plos One : the Development and Application of the Two Real-time Rt...

By: Ravi Jhaveri

Description : Large-scale Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) outbreaks have frequently occurred in China since 2008, affecting more than one million children and causing several hundred children deaths every year. The pathogens of HFMD are mainly human enteroviruses (HEVs). Among them, human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are the most common pathogens of HFMD. However, other HEVs could also cause HFMD. To rapidly detect HEV71 and CVA16, and ensur...

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Plos One : Mechanism of Intramembrane Cleavage of Alcadeins by Γ-s...

By: Stephen D. Ginsberg

Description : The initial e-site position does not always determine the final c-cleavage position in Alcs, which differed from APP. No additional c-cleavage sites are generated from artificial/non-physiological positions of e-cleavage for Alcs, while the artificial e-cleavage positions can influence in selection of physiological c-site positions. Because alteration of c-secretase activity is thought to be a pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease, Alcs are useful an...

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Plos One : Multiphoton Laser Tomography and Fluorescence Lifetime ...

By: Kurt I. Anderson

Description : Multiphoton laser tomography (MPT) combined with fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) is a non-invasive imaging technique, based on the study of fluorescence decay times of naturally occurring fluorescent molecules, enabling a noninvasive investigation of the skin with subcellular resolution. The aim of this retrospective observational ex vivo study, was to characterize melanoma both from a morphologic and a quantitative point of view, attaining an improvem...

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Plos One : Epigenetic Changes in Basal Cell Carcinoma Affect Shh a...

By: Javier S. Castresana

Description : We provide evidence that promoter hypermethylation of key players within the SHH and WNT pathways is frequent in BCC, consistent with their known constitutive activation in BCC. Epigenetic gene silencing putatively contributes to BCC tumorigenesis, indicating new venues for treatment.

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Plos One : Chronic Hiv Infection Enhances the Responsiveness of An...

By: Aftab A. Ansari

Description : Chronic immune activation despite long-term therapy poses an obstacle to immune recovery in HIV infection. The role of antigen presenting cells (APCs) in chronic immune activation during HIV infection remains to be fully determined. APCs, the frontline of immune defense against pathogens, are capable of distinguishing between pathogens and non-pathogenic, commensal bacteria. We hypothesized that HIV infection induces dysfunction in APC immune recognition an...

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Plos One : Effect of Cell Shape and Dimensionality on Spindle Orie...

By: Neil A. Hotchin

Description : The formation and orientation of the mitotic spindle is a critical feature of mitosis. The morphology of the cell and the spatial distribution and composition of the cells’ adhesive microenvironment all contribute to dictate the position of the spindle. However, the impact of the dimensionality of the cells’ microenvironment has rarely been studied. In this study we present the use of a microwell platform, where the internal surfaces of the individual wells...

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Plos One : Human Jcv Infections as a Bio-anthropological Marker of...

By: Yury E. Khudyakov

Description : JC polyomavirus (JCV) is a member of the Polyomaviridae family. It presents a tropism to kidney cells, and the infection occurs in a variety of human population groups of different ethnic background. The present study investigated the prevalence of JCV infection among human populations from the Brazilian Amazon region, and describes the molecular and phylogenetic features of the virus. Urine samples from two urban groups of Bele´m (healthy subjects), one Br...

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Plos One : Constitutive Type VI Secretion System Expression Gives ...

By: Thierry Soldati

Description : The type VI secretion system (T6SS) mediates protein translocation across the cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, including Vibrio cholerae – the causative agent of cholera. All V. cholerae strains examined to date harbor gene clusters encoding a T6SS. Structural similarity and sequence homology between components of the T6SS and the T4 bacteriophage cell-puncturing device suggest that the T6SS functions as a contractile molecular syringe to inject eff...

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Plos One : Anatomical Substrates of the Alerting, Orienting and Ex...

By: Floris P. De Lange

Description : Both neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging studies have identified that the posterior parietal lobe (PPL) is critical for the attention function. However, the unique role of distinct parietal cortical subregions and their underlying white matter (WM) remains in question. In this study, we collected both magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data in normal participants, and evaluated their attention performance using attentio...

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