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Plos One : a Single Bout of Exercise Improves Motor Memory, Volume 7

By: Corrado Sinigaglia

Description : Regular physical activity has a positive impact on cognition and brain function. Here we investigated if a single bout of exercise can improve motor memory and motor skill learning. We also explored if the timing of the exercise bout in relation to the timing of practice has any impact on the acquisition and retention of a motor skill. Forty-eight young subjects were randomly allocated into three groups, which practiced a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task e...

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Plos One : Insulin-like Growth Factor-i E-peptide Activity is Depe...

By: André Frédéric

Description : Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is an essential growth factor that regulates the processes necessary for cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The Igf1 gene encodes mature IGF-I and a carboxy-terminal extension called the E-peptide. In rodents, alternative splicing and post-translational processing produce two E-peptides (EA and EB). EB has been studied extensively and has been reported to promote cell proliferation and migration independe...

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Plos One : the Role of the E3 Ligase Cbl-b in Murine Dendritic Cel...

By: Michael Platten

Description : Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells with a promising potential in cancer immunotherapy. Cbl proteins are E3 ubiquitin ligases and have been implicated in regulating the functional activity of various immune cells. As an example, c-Cbl negatively affects DC activation. We here describe that another member of the Cbl-protein family (i.e. Cbl-b) is highly expressed in murine bone-marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs). Differentiation of cblb2/2 bone...

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Plos One : Post-embryonic Transcriptomes of the Prawn MacRobrachiu...

By: Jr-kai Sky Yu

Description : Like many metazoans, the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii begins its post-embryonic life with a set of morphologically distinct planktonic larval stages, followed by a benthic post-larval stage during which the maturing organism differs from the larvae both ecologically and physiologically. Understanding of the molecular basis underlying morphogenesis in crustaceans is limited to the observation that methyl farnesoate, the non-epoxidated form of t...

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Plos One : an Integrated Expression Profiling Reveals Target Genes...

By: Vladimir V. Kalinichenko

Description : EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) is crucial for cancer cells to acquire invasive phenotypes. In A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells, TGF-b elicited EMT in Smad-dependent manner and TNF-a accelerated this process, as confirmed by cell morphology, expression of EMT markers, capacity of gelatin lysis and cell invasion. TNF-a stimulated the phosphorylation of Smad2 linker region, and this effect was attenuated by inhibiting MEK or JNK pathway. Comprehensive e...

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Plos One : How Predictability of Feeding Patches Affects Home Rang...

By: Dustin Rubenstein

Description : Feeding stations are commonly used to sustain conservation programs of scavengers but their impact on behaviour is still debated. They increase the temporal and spatial predictability of food resources while scavengers have supposedly evolved to search for unpredictable resources. In the Grands Causses (France), a reintroduced population of Griffon vultures Gyps fulvus can find carcasses at three types of sites : 1. ‘‘light feeding stations’’, where farmers...

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Plos One : Relationship Between Water Soluble Carbohydrate Content...

By: Ofer Ovadia

Description : Aphids feed on plant phloem sap, rich in sugars but poor in essential amino acids. However, sugars cause osmotic regulation problems for aphids, which they overcome by hydrolysing the sugars in their gut and polymerising the hydrolysis products into oligosaccharides, excreted with honeydew. Aphids harbour primary bacterial endosymbionts, which supply them with essential amino acids necessary for survival. They also harbour secondary (facultative) endosymbio...

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Plos One : a Chlamydomonas-derived Human Papillomavirus 16 E7 Vacc...

By: Wei Ning Chen

Description : The C. reinhardtii chloroplast is a suitable expression system for the production of the E7GGG protein, in a soluble, immunogenic form. The production in contained and sterile conditions highlights the potential of microalgae as alternative platforms for the production of vaccines for human uses

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Plos One : the Effect of Aquatic Plant Abundance on Shell Crushing...

By: Sean Walker

Description : Most of the shell material in snails is composed of calcium carbonate but the organic shell matrix determines the properties of calcium carbonate crystals. It has been shown that the deposition of calcium carbonate is affected by the ingestion of organic compounds. We hypothesize that organic compounds not synthesized by the snails are important for shell strength and must be obtained from the diet. We tested this idea indirectly by evaluating whether the a...

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Plos One : Associations of Pon1 and Genetic Ancestry with Obesity ...

By: Yi-hsiang Hsu

Description : Obesity in children has become an epidemic in the U.S. and is particularly prominent in minority populations such as Mexican-Americans. In addition to physical activity and diet, genetics also plays a role in obesity etiology. A few studies in adults and adolescents suggest a link between obesity and paraoxonase 1 (PON1), a multifunctional enzyme that can metabolize organophosphate pesticides and also has antioxidant properties. We determined PON1192 genoty...

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Plos One : Rna-seq Reveals Infection-related Gene Expression Chang...

By: Zhanjiang Liu

Description : Phytophthora capsici is a soilborne plant pathogen capable of infecting a wide range of plants, including many solanaceous crops. However, genetic resistance and fungicides often fail to manage P. capsici due to limited knowledge on the molecular biology and basis of P. capsici pathogenicity. To begin to rectify this situation, Illumina RNA-Seq was used to perform massively parallel sequencing of three cDNA samples derived from P. capsici mycelia (MY), zoos...

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Plos One : Breastfeeding is Not a Risk Factor for Mother-to-child ...

By: James Fung

Description : Under the recommended prophylaxis, breastfeeding is not a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of HBV. Therefore, clinicians should encourage HBV-infected mothers to breastfeed their infants.

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Plos One : Expression of Cellulosome Components and Type IV Pili W...

By: Marie-joelle Virolle

Description : This study provides new information on the extracellular proteome of R. flavefaciens and its regulation in response to different growth substrates. Furthermore it suggests that the cotton cellulose non-degrading strain (007S) has altered regulation of multiple proteins that may be required for breakdown of cotton cellulose. One of these, the type IV pilus was previously shown to play a role in adhesion to cellulose in R. albus, and a related pilin protein w...

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Plos One : Pharmacological Inhibition of Polysialyltransferase St8...

By: A Ganesan

Description : Polysialic acid (polySia), an α-2,8-glycosidically linked polymer of sialic acid, is a developmentally regulated posttranslational modification predominantly found on NCAM (neuronal cell adhesion molecule). Whilst high levels are expressed during development, peripheral adult organs do not express polySia-NCAM. However, tumours of neural crest-origin re-express polySia-NCAM : its occurrence correlates with aggressive and invasive disease and poor clinical p...

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Plos One : Towards a Novel Monitor of Intraoperative Awareness ; S...

By: Esteban Andres Fridman

Description : During 0.1–0.2% of operations with general anesthesia, patients become aware during surgery. Unfortunately, pharmacologically paralyzed patients cannot seek attention by moving. Their attempted movements may however induce detectable EEG changes over the motor cortex. Here, methods from the area of movement-based brain-computer interfacing are proposed as a novel direction in anesthesia monitoring. Optimal settings for development of such a paradigm are stu...

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Plos One : Effects of Finger Tapping Frequency on Regional Homogen...

By: Nanyin Zhang

Description : Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has been widely used to investigate temporally correlated fluctuations between distributed brain areas, as well as to characterize local synchronization of low frequency (,0.1 Hz) spontaneous fMRI signal. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was proposed as a voxel-wise measure of the synchronization of the timecourses of neighboring voxels and has been used in many studies of brain disorders. However, th...

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Plos One : Too Fat to Fit Through the Door ; First Evidence for Di...

By: Manos Tsakiris

Description : To date, research on the disturbed experience of body size in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) mainly focused on the conscious perceptual level (i.e. body image). Here we investigated whether these disturbances extend to body schema : an unconscious, action-related representation of the body. AN patients (n = 19) and healthy controls (HC: n = 20) were compared on bodyscaled action. Participants walked through door-like openings varying in width while performing a dive...

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Plos One : Among Patients with Sustained Viral Suppression in a Re...

By: Jianming Tang

Description : There was long-term, continuous, immunologic recovery up to 7 years after ART initiation in an urban Ugandan cohort. Virologically suppressed women had better sustained immune recovery than men. Men take longer to immune reconstitute and have a lower probability of reaching a CD4 cell count >400 cells/μL. The biologic mechanisms of these gender differences need further exploration.

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Plos One : Tibet as a Potential Domestication Center of Cultivated...

By: David Caramelli

Description : The importance of wild barley from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the origin and domestication of cultivated barley has long been underestimated. Population-based phylogenetic analyses were performed to study the origin and genetic diversity of Chinese domesticated barley, and address the possibility that the Tibetan region in China was an independent center of barley domestication. Wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) populations from Southwest Asia, Ce...

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Plos One : Children’s Phthalate Intakes and Resultant Cumulative E...

By: Jaymie Meliker

Description : Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age. For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phtha...

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