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Plos One : Risk Stratification of Latent Tuberculosis Defined by C...

By: Francesco Dieli

Description : Background : Most individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis develop latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Some may progress to active disease and would benefit from preventive treatment yet no means currently exists to predict who will reactivate. Here, we provide an approach to stratify LTBI based on IFN-c responses to two antigens, the recombinant Early-Secreted Antigen Target-6 (rESAT-6) and the latency antigen Heparin-Binding Haemagglutinin (...

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Plos One : Stronger Sexual Selection in Warmer Waters ; the Case o...

By: Stephanie M. Carlson

Description : In order to answer broader questions about sexual selection, one needs to measure selection on a wide array of phenotypic traits, simultaneously through space and time. Nevertheless, studies that simultaneously address temporal and spatial variation in reproduction are scarce. Here, we aimed to investigate the reproductive dynamics of a cold-water pipefish simultaneously through time (encompassing variation within each breeding cycle and as individuals grow...

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Plos One : Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of Nocardia Brasilien...

By: Stephen V. Gordon

Description : Nocardia brasiliensis is an important etiologic agent of mycetoma. These bacteria live as a saprobe in soil or organic material and enter the tissue via minor trauma. Mycetoma is characterized by tumefaction and the production of fistula and abscesses, with no spontaneous cure. By using mass sequencing, we determined the complete genomic nucleotide sequence of the bacteria. According to our data, the genome is a circular chromosome 9,436,348-bp long with 68...

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Plos One : Mitochondrial Genetic Background Modifies the Relations...

By: Thomas Behrens

Description : Results suggest that mitochondrial haplogroup U is a novel protective factor for air pollution-related systemic inflammation in this small group of subjects.

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Plos One : in Vivoultrasonic Detection of Polyurea Crosslinked Sil...

By: Jeongmin Hong

Description : Polyurea crosslinked silica aerogel (X-Si aerogel) implants were easily identified when inserted in either of the regions in both fresh animal model and cadaveric model. The implant dimensions inferred from the images matched the actual size of the implants and no apparent damage was sustained by the X-Si aerogel implants as a result of the ultrasonic imaging process. The aerogel implants demonstrated hyperechoic behavior and significant posterior shadowing...

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Plos One : Root Secreted Metabolites and Proteins Are Involved in ...

By: Bin Xue

Description : The mechanism whereby organisms interact and differentiate between others has been at the forefront of scientific inquiry, particularly in humans and certain animals. It is widely accepted that plants also interact, but the degree of this interaction has been constricted to competition for space, nutrients, water and light. Here, we analyzed the root secreted metabolites and proteins involved in early plant neighbor recognition by using Arabidopsis thaliana...

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Plos One : Mycoplasma Agalactiae Mag_5040 is a Mg2+-dependent, Sug...

By: Mitchell F. Balish

Description : In this study the enzymatic activity of Mycoplasma agalactiae MAG_5040, a magnesium-dependent nuclease homologue to the staphylococcal SNase was characterized and its antigenicity during natural infections was established. A UGA corrected version of MAG_5040, lacking the region encoding the signal peptide, was expressed in Escherichia coli as a GST fusion protein. Recombinant GST-MAG_5040 exhibits nuclease activity similar to typical sugar-nonspecific endo-...

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Plos One : Crucial Involvement of Tumor-associated Neutrophils in ...

By: Bernhard Ryffel

Description : Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a major form of chronic inflammation that can frequently progress to colon cancer. Several studies have demonstrated massive infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages into the lamina propria and submucosa in the progression of UC-associated colon carcinogenesis. Macrophages contribute to the development of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC). However, the role of neutrophils is not well understood. To better understand the inv...

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Plos One : the Composition of Microbiome in Larynx and the Throat ...

By: Michael R. Emmert-buck

Description : The throat is an ecological assemblage involved human cells and microbiota, and the colonizing bacteria are important factors in balancing this environment. However, this bacterial community profile has thus been poorly investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the microbial biology of the larynx and to analyze the throat biodiversity in laryngeal carcinoma patients compared to a control population in a case-control study. Barcoded pyrosequ...

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Plos One : Intestine-specific Mttp Deletion Decreases Mortality an...

By: Markus M. Heimesaat

Description : These studies suggest that strategies directed at blocking intestinal chylomicron secretion may attenuate the progression and improve the outcome of sepsis through effects mediated by metabolic and physiological adaptations in both intestinal and hepatic lipid flux.

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Plos One : Mydas, an Extensible Java Das Server, Volume 7

By: Niall James Haslam

Description : A large number of diverse, complex, and distributed data resources are currently available in the Bioinformatics domain. The pace of discovery and the diversity of information means that centralised reference databases like UniProt and Ensembl cannot integrate all potentially relevant information sources. From a user perspective however, centralised access to all relevant information concerning a specific query is essential. The Distributed Annotation Syste...

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Plos One : an Integrated in Silicoapproach to Design Specific Inhi...

By: Bruce R. Donald

Description : Poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN) is an exoribonuclease/deadenylase that degrades 39-end poly(A) tails in almost all eukaryotic organisms. Much of the biochemical and structural information on PARN comes from the human enzyme. However, the existence of PARN all along the eukaryotic evolutionary ladder requires further and thorough investigation. Although the complete structure of the full-length human PARN, as well as several aspects of the catalytic mec...

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Plos One : Forest Structure, Stand Composition, and Climate- Growt...

By: Ben Bond-lamberty

Description : Montane forests of western China provide an opportunity to establish baseline studies for climate change. The region is being impacted by climate change, air pollution, and significant human impacts from tourism. We analyzed forest stand structure and climate-growth relationships from Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in northwestern Sichuan province, along the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We conducted a survey to characterize forest stand diversit...

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Plos One : Nicorandil Prevents Gaq-induced Progressive Heart Failu...

By: Vladimir E. Bondarenko

Description : These findings suggest that nicorandil can prevent the development of HF and ventricular arrhythmia caused by the activation of GPCR signaling through the shortening of the QT interval, action potential duration, the normalization of SERCA2 gene expression. Nicorandil may also improve the impaired coronary circulation during HF.

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Plos One : Association Between Cd14 Gene C-260T Polymorphism and I...

By: Georgina L. Hold

Description : Expanding previous results of individual studies, our findings demonstrated that CD14 gene C- 260T polymorphism might be a promising candidate marker in susceptibility to UC, especially in Asians.

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Plos One : Modeling the Building Blocks of Biodiversity, Volume 7

By: Jerome Chave

Description : These novel results reveal fundamental differences between the ability to predict ecologically important features of the overall structure of a network and the ability to predict pair-wise species interactions.

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Plos One : Association of Left Ventricular Mass with All-cause Mor...

By: Yan Gong

Description : Left ventricular mass has a graded and independent association with all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction and stroke.

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Plos One : Novel Agents Targeting the Igf-1R, Volume 7

By: Javier S. Castresana

Description : The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is fundamental for cancer cell proliferation and is known to be frequently altered and activated in neoplasia, including embryonal tumors. Based on the high frequency of alterations, targeting components of the PI3K signaling pathway is considered to be a promising therapeutic approach for cancer treatment. Here, we have investigated the potential of targeting the axis of the insuli...

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Plos One : Islands of Conformational Stability for Filopodia, Volume 8

By: J. Kabla Alexandre

Description : Filopodia are long, thin protrusions formed when bundles of fibers grow outwardly from a cell surface while remaining closed in a membrane tube. We study the subtle issue of the mechanical stability of such filopodia and how this depends on the deformation of the membrane that arises when the fiber bundle adopts a helical configuration. We calculate the ground state conformation of such filopodia, taking into account the steric interaction between the membr...

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Plos One : Individual Differences in the Discrimination of Novel S...

By: Johan J. Bolhuis

Description : This study examined whether rapid temporal auditory processing, verbal working memory capacity, non-verbal intelligence, executive functioning, musical ability and prior foreign language experience predicted how well native English speakers (N = 120) discriminated Norwegian tonal and vowel contrasts as well as a non-speech analogue of the tonal contrast and a native vowel contrast presented over noise. Results confirmed a male advantage for temporal and ton...

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