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From the Sun to the Earth: Impact of the 27-28 May 2003 Solar Even...

By: N. Cornilleau-wehrlin; F. Auchère; K. Bocchialini; J. C. Cerisier; J. Watermann; N. Vilmer; S. Bruinsma; C. Hanuise; N. Jakowski; M. Menvielle; C. Lathuillère; P. Yaya; J.-j. Valette

Description: LPCE/CNRS, 3A avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orléans Cedex, France. During the last week of May 2003, the solar active region AR 10365 produced a large number of flares, several of which were accompanied by Coronal Mass Ejections (CME). Specifically on 27 and 28 May three halo CMEs were observed which had a significant impact on geospace. On 29 May, upon their arrival at the L1 point, in front of the Earth's magnetosphere, two interplanetary ...

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Solar Flares as Proxy for the Young Sun: Satellite Observed Thermo...

By: W. Hausleitner; H. Lammer; M. L. Khodachenko; A. Hanslmeier; Yu. N. Kulikov; V. I. Shematovich; S. Krauss; B. Fichtinger; D. Bisikalo; T. V. Zaqarashvili; H. I. M. Lichtenegger; I. Ribas

Description: Space Research Institute, Dept. of Satellite Geodesy, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstr. 6, 8042 Graz, Austria. We analyzed the measured thermospheric response of an extreme solar X17.2 flare that irradiated the Earth's upper atmosphere during the so-called Halloween events in late October/early November 2003. We suggest that such events can serve as proxies for the intense electromagnetic and corpuscular radiation environment of the Sun or other...

Bowman, B. R., Tobiska, W. K., Marcos, F. A., Huang, C. Y., Lin, C. S., and Burke, W. J.: A New Empirical Thermospheric Density Model JB2008 Using New Solar and Geomagnetic Indices, AIAA/AAS Astrodynamics Specialist Conference, AIAA 2008–6438, 2008b.; Bruinsma, S., Forbes, J. M., Nerem, R. S., and Zhang, X.: Thermosphere density response to the 20–21 November 2003 solar and geomagnetic storm from CHAMP and GRACE accelerometer data, J. Geophys. Res., 111, 1–14, 2006.; Bru...

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Ionospheric Feedback Effects on the Quasi-stationary Coupling Betw...

By: M. Roth; J. De Keyser; M. M. Echim

Description: BIRA-IASB, Avenue Circulaire 3, 1180 Bruxelles, Belgium. We discuss a model for the quasi-stationary coupling between magnetospheric sheared flows in the dusk sector and discrete auroral arcs, previously analyzed for the case of a uniform height-integrated Pedersen conductivity (ΣP). Here we introduce an ionospheric feedback as the variation of ΣP with the energy flux of precipitating magnetospheric electrons (Ε

Atkinson, G.: Auroral arcs: result of the interaction of a dynamic magnetosphere with the ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 75, 4746–4755, 1970.; Bythrow, P., Heelis, R., Hanson, W., Power, R. A., and Hoffman, R. A.: Observational evidence for a boundary layer source of dayside region 1 field-aligned current, J. Geophys. Res., 86, 5577, 1981.; Chiu, Y T. and Cornwall, J M.: Electrostatic model of a quiet auroral arc, J. Geophys. Res., 85, 543–556, 1980.; Chiu, Y T. and Schul...

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Edi Convection Measurements at 5-6 RE in the Post-midnight Region ...

By: N. Sckopke; O. H. Bauer; R. B. Torbert; E. C. Whipple; V. K. Jordanova; G. Paschmann; K. Lynch; G. Haerendel; S. S. Kerr; H. Vaith; C. E. McIlwain; C. A. Kletzing; J. M. Quinn; W. Baumjohann; W. Fillius

Description: Space Science Center, Morse Hall, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, 03824, USA. We present the first triangulation measurements of electric fields with the electron drift instrument (EDI) on Equator-S. We show results from five high-data-rate passes of the satellite through the near-midnight equatorial region, at geocentric distances of approximately 5–6 RE, during geomagnetically quiet conditions. In a co-rotating frame of reference, ...

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Transient and Localized Processes in the Magnetotail: a Review : V...

By: P. Louarn; A. Petrukovich; M. Hoshino; K. Snekvik; C. J. Owen; A. S. Sharma; J.-a. Sauvaud; H. Hasegawa; R. Nakamura; L. M. Zelenyi; E. E. Grigorenko; J. A. Slavin; A. Runov; B. U. Ö. Sonnerup; V. S. Semenov; S. Haaland; V. A. Sergeev; G. Fruit; H. Malova

Description: Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, USA. Many phenomena in the Earth's magnetotail have characteristic temporal scales of several minutes and spatial scales of a few Earth radii (RE). Examples of such transient and localized mesoscale phenomena are bursty bulk flows, beamlets, energy dispersed ion beams, flux ropes, traveling compression regions, night-side flux transfer events, and rapid flappings of the curr...

Alexeev, I V., Owen, C J., Fazakerley, A N., Runov, A., Dewhurst, J P., Balogh, A., Rème, H., Klecker, B., and Kistler, L.: Cluster observations of currents in the plasma sheet during reconnection, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L03101, \doi10.1029/2004GL021420, 2005.; Alexeev, I V., Sergeev, V., Owen, C J., Fazakerley, A., Lucek, E., and Rème, H.: Remote sensing of a magnetotail reconnection X-line using polar rain electrons, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L19105, \doi10.1029/2006G...

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Specific Features of Eddy Turbulence in the Turbopause Region : Vo...

By: M. C. Kelley; M. N. Vlasov

Description: School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. The turbopause region is characterized by transition from the mean molecular mass (constant with altitude) to the mean mass (dependent on altitude). The former is provided by eddy turbulence, and the latter is induced by molecular diffusion. Competition between these processes provides the transition from the homosphere to the heterosphere. The turbopause altitude can be ...

Hocking, W. K.: Observation and measurement of turbulence in the middle atmosphere with a VHF radar, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 48, 655–670, 1986.; Banks, P. M. and Kockarts, G.: Aeronomy, part B, Academic Press, New York, 11–12, 1973.; Akmaev, R. A.: On the energetics of mean-flow interactions with thermally dissipating gravity waves, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D11125, doi:10.1029/2006JD007908, 2007.; Becker, E.: Direct heating...

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Modelling Cosmic Ray Intensities Along the Ulysses Trajectory : Vo...

By: B. Heber; M. S. Potgieter; D. C. Ndiitwani; S. E. S. Ferreira

Description: Unit for Space Physics, School of Physics, North-West University, 2520 Potchefstroom, South Africa. Time dependent cosmic ray modulation in the inner heliosphere is studied by comparing results from a 2-D, time-dependent cosmic ray transport model with Ulysses observations. A compound approach, which combines the effects of the global changes in the heliospheric magnetic field magnitude with drifts to establish a realistic time-dependence, in the diffusi...

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Estimation of the Effect of Long-range Transport on Seasonal Varia...

By: P. K. Bhuyan; K. Krishna Moorthy; M. M. Gogoi

Description: SPL, VSSC, Trivandrum 695 022 India. Spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) at ten discrete channels in the visible and near IR regions were estimated over Dibrugarh, located in the northeastern part of India, using a ground-based multi-wavelength solar radiometer (MWR) from October 2001 to February 2006. The observations reveal seasonal variations with low values of AODs in retreating monsoon and high values in the pre-monsoon season. Generally the AODs ...

Ångström, A.: Techniques of determining the turbidity of the atmosphere, Tellus, 13, 214–223, 1961; Bhuyan, P. K., Gogoi, M. M., and Moorthy, K. K.: Spectral and temporal characteristics of aerosol optical depth over a wet tropical location in North East India, Adv. Space Res., Elsevier, 35, 1423–1429, 2005.; Charlson, R. J., Schwartz, S. E., Heles, J. M., Cess, R. D., Coakley Jr., J. A., Hansen, J. E., and Hoffman, D. J.: Climate Forcing by Anthropogenic Aerosols, Scien...

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Latitudinal Variations of Tec Over Europe Obtained from Gpsobserva...

By: I. I. Shagimuratov; M. V. Aleshnikova; L. W. Baran; P. Wielgosz

Description: Insitute of Geodesy, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland. GPS technique has opened broad possibilities to study the TEC distribution on a regular basis. In this paper, the latitudinal dependence of TEC over Europe for geographic latitudes ranging from 40°N to 75°N is presented. We discuss the day-to-day variations of the latitudinal TEC profiles for a period of 1999 to 2001 for both quiet and disturbed magnetic conditions. More than 4300 TEC ...

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The Importance of Moisture Distribution for the Growth and Energet...

By: M. Blackburn; V. Pavan; P. Valdes; N. Hall

Description: CINECA, via Magnanelli 6/3, 40033 Casalecchio di Reno, Bologna, Itay. A primitive equation model is used to study the sensitivity of baroclinic wave life cycles to the initial latitude-height distribution of humidity. Diabatic heating is parametrized only as a consequence of condensation in regions of large-scale ascent. Experiments are performed in which the initial relative humidity is a simple function of model level, and in some cases latitude bands...

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Brightness Variations of the Northern 630Nm Intertropical Arc and ...

By: F. Andemariam; S. Habtemichael; S. Sargoytchev; R. H. Wiens; J. Criswick; K. Welday; S. Brown

Description: Department of Physics, University of Asmara, P.O. Box 1220, Asmara, Eritrea. The nightglow brightness at 630nm from the thermospheric O(1D) layer was monitored nightly at Asmara, Eritrea (15.4° N, 39.9° E, 7° N dip) with an all-sky imager. Averages of north-south strips of the images enabled contour plots of brightness on a latitude vs. local time grid. The contours show the movement of the intertropical arc southward before midnight, staying...

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Statistics of Counter-streaming Solar Wind Suprathermal Electrons ...

By: A. P. Rouillard; C. Foullon; R. M. Skoug; J. T. Gosling; J. G. Luhmann; D. E. Larson; J.-a. Sauvaud; P. Louarn; J. T. Steinberg; A. Fedorov; C. Mazelle; P. Schroeder; B. Lavraud; I. Dandouras; K. D. Simunac; V. Génot; E. Penou; C. T. Russell; A. Opitz; L. Jian; K. Meziane; C. Jacquey; A. B. Galvin

Description: Centre d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, Université de Toulouse (UPS), 9 Avenue du Colonel Roche, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4, France. Previous work has shown that solar wind suprathermal electrons can display a number of features in terms of their anisotropy. Of importance is the occurrence of counter-streaming electron patterns, i.e., with beams both parallel and anti-parallel to the local magnetic field, which is believed to shed light on the heliospheric...

Acuña, M. H., Curtis, D., Scheifele, J. L., Russell, C. T., Schroeder, P., Szabo, A., and Luhmann, J. G.: The STEREO/IMPACT magnetic field experiment, Space Sci. Rev., 136(1–4), 203–226, 2008.; Burlaga, L. F.: Interplanetary stream interfaces, J. Geophys. Res., 79(25), 3717–3725, 1974.; Burlaga, L. F., Mish, W. H., and Whang, Y. C.: Coalescence of recurrent streams of different sizes and amplitudes, J. Geophys. Res., 95(A4), 4247–4255, 1990.; Carovillano, R. L. and Sisco...

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The Small-scale Structure of Vhf Mesospheric Summer Echo Layers Ob...

By: L. Thomas; D. A. Hooper

Description: Department of Physics, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, SY23 3Bz, UK. The VHF radar system at Aberystwyth (52.4° N, 4.1°E) has been used to make high-time-resolution, multi-beam observations of mesospheric summer echo layers. These show that the altitude and the sense of vertical movement of the layers can vary over time-scales of minutes and horizontal scales of kilometres. In general, the altitude profiles of signal-to-noise ratio provide evidence of...

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The Structure of Standing Alfvén Waves in a Dipole Magnetosphere w...

By: A. S. Leonovich; J. B. Cao; D. A. Kozlov

Description: Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP), Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Irkutsk, Russia. The structure and spectrum of standing Alfvén waves were theoretically investigated in a dipole magnetosphere with moving plasma. Plasma motion was simulated with its azimuthal rotation. The model's scope allowed for describing a transition from the inner plasmasphere at rest to the outer magnetosphere with convecting plasma and, through the mag...

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The Dynamic Cusp Aurora on 30 November 1997: Response to Southward...

By: B. Lybekk; C. J. Farrugia; P. E. Sandholt

Description: Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. We document the detailed dynamics of the dayside aurora in the \sim1200-1600 MLT sector in response to a sharp southward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) under negative IMF By conditions. Features not documented in previous work are elucidated by using two meridan scanning photometers (separated by 2 h) and an all-sky auroral imager in Ny Ålesund, Svalbard (75.5...

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Modeling Solar Flare Induced Lower Ionosphere Changes Using Vlf/Lf...

By: E. D. Schmitter

Description: University of Applied Sciences Osnabrück, 49076 Osnabrück, Germany. Remote sensing of the ionosphere bottom using long wave radio signal propagation is a still going strong and inexpensive method for continuous monitoring purposes. We present a propagation model describing the time development of solar flare effects. Based on monitored amplitude and phase data from VLF/LF transmitters gained at a mid-latitude site during the currently increasing solar c...

Aiken, A. C.: The Ion Pair Production Function of the Lower Ionosphere, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Goddard Space Flight Center, Technical report N70-18945, 1969.; Aschwanden, M. J.: Solar Flare Physics Enlivened by TRACE and RHESSI, J. Astrophys. Astr., 29, 115–124, 2008.; Belenkiy, M. I., Orlov, A. B., Petrova, G. A., and Uvarov, A. N.: Modeling of the electron density profile of the lower ionosphere (45–75 km) for sudden ionospheric disturbance cond...

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Longitudinal Drift of Substorm Electrons as the Reason of Impulsiv...

By: J. Manninen; A. G. Demekhov; E. E. Titova; A. G. Yahnin; A. A. Lubchich; T. Turunen; V. Yu. Trakhtengerts

Description: Polar Geophysical Institute, Apatity, Russia. Using the data from satellite CRRES and three geostationary LANL spacecraft, the propagation of an electron cloud from midnight to the evening sector is investigated. An electron cloud was injected during a weak isolated substorm that developed on a quiet geomagnetic background. It is found that within the local time sector from 03:00 until at least 08:00 MLT, the propagation of electrons at perpendicular p...

Andronov, A. A. and Trakhtengerts, V. Y.: Kinetic instability of the external Earth's radiation belt, Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (in Russian), 4(2), 233–242, 1964.; Åsnes, A., Friedel, R. W., Stadsnes, J., Thomsen, M., Østgaard, N., and Cayton, T.: Statistical pitch angle properties of substorm-injected electron clouds and their relation to dawnside energetic electron precipitation, J. Geophys. Res., 110, A05207, doi:10.1029/2004JA010838, 2005.; Belian, R. D., Gisler, G. ...

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Nightglow Vibrational Distributions in the A3ΣU+ and A'3ΔU States ...

By: A. M. Widhalm; D. L. Huestis; T. G. Slanger; P. C. Cosby

Description: Molecular Physics Laboratory, SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park CA 94025, USA. Astronomical sky spectra from the Keck I telescope on Mauna Kea have been used to obtain vibrational distributions in the O2A3Σu+) and O2(A'3Δu) states from rotationally-resolved Herzberg I and Chamberlain band emissions in the terrestrial nightglow. The A3Σu

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First Multispacecraft Ion Measurements in and Near the Earth’s Mag...

By: H. Perrier; Y. Garbarowitz; Th. Camus; C. W. Carlson; B. Lavraud; J. Rouzaud; R. Bruno; N. Sckopke; D. Romefort; M. Vosbury; J. L. Medale; H. Kucharek; P. W. Daly; C. Mouikis; I. Dandouras; G. Chionchio; A. Cros; J. A. Sauvaud; B. Graeve; G. Paschmann; C. D’uston; G. Pallocchia; D. Alcaydé; F. Ducay; C. Aoustin; O. Coeur-joly; A. Barthe; J. M. Bosqued; B. Klecker; J. Bouyssou; D. Hovestadt; H. Rème; C. Jacquey; C. Vallat; J. Cuvilo; E. Kuenneth; G. K. Parks; M. Popecki; C. Ingraham; A. Di Lellis; D. W. Curtis; E. Penou; I. Papamastorakis; M. B. Bavassano-cattaneo; M. F. Marcucci; M. Scholer; K. Crocker; E. Möbius; T. Phan; R. P. Lin; J. Scudder; V. Formisano; L. M. Kistler; S. Fuselier; S. Olsen; E. Seidenschwang; C. P. Escoubet; M. McCarthy; C. Mazelle; R. Lundin; M. Granoff; J. P. McFadden; H. Rosenbauer; E. Amata; J.-b. Cao; W. Lennartsson; R. Friedel; R. Pellat; L. Eliasson; E. G. Shelley; M. Wilber; H. Balsiger; A. Korth; R. A. Kovrazhkin; P. Baldetti; V. Vasyliunas; B. Sonnerup

Description: CESR, BP 4346, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4, France. On board the four Cluster spacecraft, the Cluster Ion Spectrometry (CIS) experiment measures the full, three-dimensional ion distribution of the major magnetospheric ions (H+, He+, He++, and O+) from the thermal energies to about 40 keV/e. The experiment consists of two different instruments: a COmposition and DIstribution Function analyser (CIS1/CODIF), givi...

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