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Review Article A. B. Dobrowolski – the First Cryospheric Scientist...

By: R. G. Barry; J. Jania; K. Birkenmajer

Description: National Snow and Ice Data Center, CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 80309-0449, USA. The origin of the term cryosphere has been traced to the Polish scientist A. B. Dobrowolski in his 1923 book on The Natural History of Ice written in Polish. This note commemorates his little recognized contribution to the science, outside of his native country, and summarizes the recent organization of cryospheric research.

Allison, I., Barry, R. G., and Goodison, B. (Eds.): Climate and cryosphere (CliC) project science and co-ordination plan, Version 1, WCRP-114, WMO/TD No. 1053, Geneva, World Meteorological Organization, 76 pp., 2001.; Barry, R. G.: The cryosphere and climate change, in: Detecting the climatic effects of increasing carbon dioxide, edited by: MacCracken, M. C. and Luther, F. M., DOE/ER 0235, Washington DC, US Dept of Energy, 109–148, 1985.; Barry, R. G.: Organization of in...

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Roald Amundsen's Contributions to Our Knowledge of the Magnetic Fi...

By: C. S. Deehr; A. Egeland

Description: Department of Physics, University of Oslo, P.O.~Box 1048, Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway. Roald Amundsen (1872–1928) was known as one of the premier polar explorers in the golden age of polar exploration. His accomplishments clearly document that he has contributed to knowledge in fields as diverse as ethnography, meteorology and geophysics. In this paper we will concentrate on his studies of the Earth's magnetic field. With his unique observations at the p...

Amundsen, R.: The Northwest Passage, Archibald Constable & Co. Ltd., London, 1908a.; Amundsen, R.: The Northwest Passage, E. P. Dutton & Co., New York, 1908b.; Brown, L. A.: The Story of Maps, Little, Brown & Son, New York, 1949.; Campbell, W. H.: FORUM Comment on Survey Track Current Position of South Magnetic Pole and Recent Acceleration of the North Magnetic Pole Linked to Magnetic Jerks, Eos Trans. AGU, 84, 42–43, 2003.; Chapman, S. C. and Bartels, J.: Geomagnetism, ...

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Alexander Von Humboldt's Charts of the Earth's Magnetic Field: an ...

By: A. Soloviev; M. Korte; A. Gvishiani; M. Mandea

Description: Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP, Université Paris-Diderot & CNRS, UMR7154), Case 7011, 5 rue Thomas Mann, 75205 Paris Cedex 13, France. The 19th century witnessed a resurgence of interest in Earth's magnetic field. Both observational and theoretical aspects were involved, and one of the emblematic figures of this period was Alexander von Humboldt. Throughout a long life he maintained a strong interest in a broad area of subjects, however, he...

Alexandrescu, M., Courtillot, V., and Le Mouël, J.-L.: Geomagnetic field direction in Paris since the mid-XVIth century, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 98, 321–360, 1996.; Barraclough, D. R.: Spherical harmonic models of the geomagnetic field, Geomagn. Bull. Inst. Geol. Sci., 8, 1–66, 1978.; Alexandrescu, M., Courtillot, V., and Le Mouël, J.-L.: High resolution secular variation of the geomagnetic field in western Europe over the last 4 centuries: Comparison and integration...

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Historian of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy Obituary – Dr. Wilfried Sch...

By: K. Schlegel; G. Gregori

Description: Copernicus Gesellschaft e.V., Bahnhofsallee 1e, 37081 Göttingen, Germany. No abstract available.

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Carl Friedrich Gauss – General Theory of Terrestrial Magnetism – a...

By: K.-h. Glassmeier; B. T. Tsurutani

Description: Institut für Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany. This is a translation of the Allgemeine Theorie des Erdmagnetismus published by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1839 in the Resultate aus den Beobachtungen des Magnetischen Vereins im Jahre 1838. The current translation is based on an earlier translation by Elizabeth Juliana Sabine published in 1841. This earlier translation has been revised, correct...

Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique: Bulletins de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, M. Hayez, Bruxelles, 1836.; Acuña, M. H., Anderson, B. J., Russell, C. T., Wasilewski, P., Kletetshka, G., Zanetti, L., and Omidi, N.: NEAR Magnetic Field Observations at 433 Eros: First Measurements from the Surface of an Asteroid, Icarus, 155, 220–228, doi:10.100...

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100Th Anniversary of the Discovery of Cosmic Radiation: the Role o...

By: K. Schlegel; R. G. A. Fricke

Description: Behringstr. 30, 38300 Wolfenbüttel, Germany. The year 2012 marks the 100th anniversary of the discovery of cosmic radiation by the Austrian physicist Victor Franz Hess (1883–1964), obtained onboard manned balloons, one of them launched up to an altitude of 5.3 km. His discovery earned him the Nobel Prize in 1936. The discovery follows in the context of the investigation of atmospheric electricity and of the newly discovered radioactivity, in particular ...

Piccard, A.: Professor Piccards Forschungsflug in die Stratosphäre, Herausgeber: Neue Augsburger Ztg., Augsburg, 1931.; Poggendorff, J. C.: Geschichte der Physik, 875 pp., Barth, Leipzig, 1879.; Wilson, C. T. R.: On the ionisation of atmospheric air, P. Roy. Soc. Lond. A, 68, 151–161, 1901.; Bergwitz, K.: Die γ-Strahlung des Erdkörpers und ihr Anteil an der spontanen Ionisierung der Atmosphäre; 16. Jahresbericht des Vereins für Naturwissenschaft zu Braunschweig, 196–239,...

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Book Review ''Harald Moltke – Painter of the Aurora'' : Volume 3, ...

By: S. Silverman
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Investigations of the Auroral Luminosity Distribution and the Dyna...

By: V. L. Zverev; M. Förster; Y. I. Feldstein; V. G. Vorobjev

Description: Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radiowave Propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IZMIRAN), 142090 Troitsk, Moscow region, Russia. Research results about planetary-scale auroral distributions are presented in a historical retrospective, beginning with the first maps of isochasms – lines of equal visibility of auroras in the firmament (Fig. 2) – up to isoaurora maps – lines of equal occurrence frequency of auroras in the zenith...

Akasofu, S.-I., The dynamical morphology of the aurora polaris, J. Geophys. Res., 68, 1667–1673, 1963.; Ackerson, K. L. and L. A. Frank, Correlated satellite measurements of low-energy electron precipitation and ground-based observations of a visibly auroral arc, J. Geophys. Res., 77, 1128–1136, 1972.; Akasofu, S.-I.: The development of the auroral substorm, Planet. Space Sci., 12, 273–282, 1964a.; Akasofu, S.-I.: The latitudinal shift of the auroral belt, J. Atmos. Terr...

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The Development of the Aurora of 18 January 1770 : Volume 1, Issue...

By: W. Schröder

Description: Geophysical Commission, Hechelstrasse 8, 28777 Bremen, Germany. The development of the great aurora of 18 January 1770 has been discussed in fundamental papers by Silberschlag, Behn and other authors. The aurora was observed in middle and low latitudes and in Northern latitude. In Central Europe it displayed all typical auroral forms, including the corona.

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Book Review: Locales of Happiness: Colonial Irrigation in the Neth...

By: M. Carey
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Introduction ''History of Geophysical Institutes and Observatories...

By: J. Urrutia Fucugauchi; M. G. Johnson (Guest Editors); D. Cole; K. Arora
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From San Francisco to Tōhoku – 111 Yr of Continuous Earthquake Rec...

By: M. Leven; U. Wedeken; W. Brunk; H. Steffen

Description: Lantmäteriet, Lantmäterigatan 2c, 80182 Gävle, Sweden. In 1902, the so-called Erdbebenhaus (earthquake house) was built in the garden of the Institute of Geophysics of the University of Göttingen to host and protect the very sensitive and fragile seismographs designed by Emil Wiechert. These instruments were the standard at their time, and they are still in operation today, documenting 111 yr of almost continuous seismological observations. Since 2005, ...

Börngen, M., Homilius, J., and Jacobs, F.: Die Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft, 1922–1997, in: Zur Geschichte der Geophysik in Deutschland (Jubiläumsschrift der DGG), edited by: Neunhöfer, H., Börngen, M., Junge, A., and Schweitzer, J., 7–26, Deut. Geophys. Ges., Hamburg, 1997 (in German).; Brunk, W.: Mintrop-Kugel fällt wieder an der Wiechert'schen Erdbebenwarte, Mitt. Deut. Geophys. Ges., 3/2008, 19–20, 2008 (in German).; Brunk, W. and Steffen, H.: Nachlass von ...

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Egeson's (George's) Transtridecadal Weather Cycling and Sunspots :...

By: M. Sampson; G. Cornélissen; D. Sonntag; K.-h. Bernhardt; O. Schwartzkopff; F. Halberg

Description: Halberg Chronobiology Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. In the late 19th century, Charles Egeson, a map compiler at the Sydney Observatory, carried out some of the earliest research on climatic cycles, linking them to about 33-year cycles in solar activity, and predicted that a devastating drought would strike Australia at the turn of the 20th century. Eduard Brückner and William J. S. Lockyer, who, like Egeson, found similar ...

Alissov, B. P., Drosdov, O. A., and Rubinstein, E. S.: Lehrbuch der Klimatologie, Deutsche Übersetzung Berlin, 336–337, 1956.; Apprehensions, {&}c: New South Wales Police Gazette, 16 August 1893, p. 281, 1893.; Australian: Mr Dibbs' No-Confidence Motion, Evening Post, Volume XL, Issue 106, 1 November 1890, 2, 1890.; Australian Dictionary of Biography: Russell, Henry Chamberlain (1836–1907). http://adbonline.anu.edu.a...

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How the Saint Santin Incoherent Scatter System Paved the Way for a...

By: M. Petit; W. Kofman; P. Bauer; P. Waldteufel; A. Giraud

Description: Bureau des longitudes, 23 Quai de Conti, 75006 Paris, France. This paper relates the development of a French incoherent scatter system which started its operations in 1965. This development took place several years after the initial implementation of such systems in the United States, in Peru and in the United Kingdom. The French system, owing to its bistatic configuration and the use of continuous waves, differed from the previous ones. These character...

Bauer, P.: Theory of waves incoherently scattered, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A., 280, 167–191, 1975.; Bowles, K. L.: Observation of vertical incidence scatter from the ionosphere at 41 Mc/sec, Phys. Rev. Lett., 1, 454–455, 1958.; Carlson Jr., H. C.: Ionospheric heating by magnetic conjugate-point photoelectrons, J. Geophys. Res., 71, 195–199, 1966.; Chabert, B., Dutang, P., and Sanchez, G.: Correlateur multibit a large bande (16 MHz), Note Tech. LETI/MCTE 1045 CEACEN-La...

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Father Secchi and the First Italian Magnetic Observatory : Volume ...

By: N. Ptitsyna; A. Altamore

Description: Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation, Russian Academy of Science, St. Petersburg Filial, Russia. The first permanent magnetic observatory in Italy was built in 1858 by Pietro Angelo Secchi, a Jesuit priest who made significant contributions in a wide variety of scientific fields, ranging from astronomy to astrophysics and meteorology. In this paper we consider his studies in geomagnetism, which have never been adequate...

Baigrie, B. S.: Electricity and magnetism: a historical perspective, Greenwood Press, Westport, USA, 173 pp., 2007.; Basso Ricci, M., Cafarella, L., Meloni, A., and Tucci, P.: Due secoli di strumenti geomagnetici in Italia (1740–1971, Istituto Nazionale di geofisica, Roma, Ed. Compositori, Bologna, 234 pp., 1997.; Brenni, P.: Dal Crystal Palace al Palais de l'Optique: la scienza alle esposizioni universali, Memoria e Ricerca, no. 17, p. 35., 2004.; Boteler, D. H.: The Su...

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Svante Arrhenius, Cosmical Physicist and Auroral Theorist : Volume...

By: H. Kragh

Description: Centre for Science Studies, Aarhus University, Building 1520, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark. Many scientists in the fin de siècle era saw a need to coordinate and unify the increasing amount of data relating the physical conditions of the Earth and the Sun; or more generally to establish a synthetic perspective that covered the earth sciences in relation to the new astrophysical sciences. Promoted under the label cosmical physics'', the unifying solar–terrestria...

Arrhenius, S.: Über die Ursache der Nordlichter, Physik. Zeits., 2, 81–87, 97–105, 1900.; Arrhenius, S.: Zur Physik des Vulkanismus, Geol. Fören. Förhandl., 22, 26–36, 1901a.; Arrhenius, S.: Zur Kosmogonie, Arch. Néerl. Sci. Exact. Natur., 6, 862–873, 1901b.; Arrhenius, S.: On the electric equilibrium of the sun, Month. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc., 64, 496–499, 1903a.; Arrhenius, S.: Lehrbuch der kosmischen Physik, Hirzel, Leipzig, 1903b.; Arrhenius, S.: Worlds in the Making:...

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Rectification of the Ancient Geographic Coordinates in Ptolemy's G...

By: C. Marx

Description: Department for Geodesy and Geoinformation Science, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin, Germany. A multitude of the ancient places given by Ptolemy in his Geography (~150 AD) are so far unknown. One of the main problems of their identification are the errors of the given ancient coordinates. The different kinds of errors are illustrated by examples. A new geodetic-statistical analysis method is described, by which ...

Rawlins, D.: The Ptolemy Geography Secrets, DIO, 14, 33–58, 2008.; Albertz, J.: Grundlagen der Interpretation von Luft- und Satellitenbildern. Eine Einführung in die Fernerkundung, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt, 1999.; Baarda, W.: A Testing Procedure for Use in Geodetic Networks, Publ. on geodesy new series, Vol. 2, No. 5, Netherl. Geod. Comm., Delft, 1968.; Baumann, E.: Vermessungskunde Band 2, Dümmler, 1993.; Beineke, D.: Verfahren zur Genauigkeitsanaly...

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Erich Regener and the Ionisation Maximum of the Atmosphere : Volum...

By: A. A. Watson; P. Carlson

Description: KTH and the Oscar Klein Centre, Stockholm, Sweden. In the 1930s the German physicist Erich Regener (1881–1955) did important work on the measurement of the rate of production of ionisation deep under water and in the atmosphere. Along with one of his students, Georg Pfotzer, he discovered the altitude at which the production of ionisation in the atmosphere reaches a maximum, often, but misleadingly, called the Pfotzer maximum. Regener was one of the fir...

Alvarez, L. and Compton, A. H.: A Positively Charged Component of the Cosmic Rays, Phys. Rev., 43, 835–836, 1933.; Baade, W. and Zwicky, F.: Cosmic Rays from Super-Novae, P. Natl. Acad. USA, 20, 259–263, 1934.; Bethe, H. A., Kerr, D. M., and Jeffries, R. A.: Obituary H. W. Hoerlin, Phys. Today, 82–83, 1984.; Bhabha, H. J. and Heitler, W.: The Passage of fast Electrons and the Theory of Cosmic Showers, Proc. Roy. Soc. A, 159, 432–458, 1937.; Blackett, P. M. S.: Obituary: ...

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Sophus Peter Tromholt: an Outstanding Pioneer in Auroral Research ...

By: P. Stauning; K. Moss

Description: Guldborgvej 15, st.tv., 2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark. The Danish school teacher Sophus Peter Tromholt (1851–1896) was self-taught in physics, astronomy, and auroral sciences. Still, he was one of the brightest auroral researchers of the 19th century. He was the first scientist ever to organize and analyse correlated auroral observations over a wide area (entire Scandinavia) moving away from incomplete localized observations. Tromholt documented the relat...

Brekke, A. and Egeland, A.: Nordlyset. Kulturarv og vitenskab, Grøndahl & Dreyer, Oslo, 1994.; Carrington, R. C.: Description of a singular appearance seen in the Sun on September 1, 1859, Mon. Not. Roy, Astron. Soc., 20, 13–14, 1860.; Clauer, R. C. and Siscoe, G. (Eds.): The great historical geomagnetic storm of 1859: A modern look, Adv. Space Res., 38, 115–388, 2006.; Cliver, E. W. and Svalgaard, L.: The 1859 solar-terrestrial disturbance and the current limits of extr...

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History of Eiscat – Part 2: the Early History of Eiscat in Finland...

By: J. Oksman

Description: Professor emeritus of the University of Oulu, Finland. The idea of a Nordic incoherent scatter facility, proposed by Bengt Hultqvist, was for the first time discussed among representatives of the three Nordic countries Norway, Sweden and Finland in 1969 in Oulu, Finland. In the years to follow, when other countries joined in and the plans of the facility to be built gradually received concrete forms, Finland participated in the planning work, in spite o...

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