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Sociolinguistics


It is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and the effects of language use on society. Sociolinguistics differs from sociology of language in that the focus of sociolinguistics is the effect of the society on the language, while the latter's focus is on the language's effect on the society. Sociolinguistics overlaps to a considerable degree with pragmatics. It is historically closely related to linguistic anthropology and the distinction between the two fields has even been questioned recently.

 
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A Ten-year Record of Supraglacial Lake Evolution and Rapid Drainag...

By: M. J. Hoffman; R. L. Hawley; L. C. Andrews; J. W. Chipman; M. P. Lüthi; G. A. Catania; B. F. Morriss; T. A. Neumann

Description: Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA. The rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes introduces large pulses of meltwater to the subglacial environment and creates moulins, surface-to-bed conduits for future melt. Introduction of water to the subglacial system has been shown to affect ice flow, and modeling suggests that variability in water supply and delivery to the subsurface play an important role in the development of the subglacial hydrologic ...

Bennartz, R., Shupe, M. D., Turner, D. D., Walden, V. P., Steffen, K., Cox, C. J., Kulie, M. S., Miller, N. B., and Pettersen, C.: July 2012 Greenland melt extent enhanced by low-level liquid clouds, Nature, 496, 83–86, 2012.; Box, J. E. and Ski, K.: Remote sounding of Greenland supraglacial melt lakes: implications for subglacial hydraulics, J. Glaciol. 53, 257–265, 2007.; Cazenave, A. and Llovel, W.: Contemporary Sea Level Rise, Ann. Rev. Mar. Sci., 2, 145–173, 2010.; ...

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A Ten-year Record of Supraglacial Lake Evolution and Rapid Drainag...

By: M. J. Hoffman; R. L. Hawley; L. C. Andrews; J. W. Chipman; M. P. Lüthi; G. A. Catania; B. F. Morriss; T. A. Neumann

Description: Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA. The rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes introduces large pulses of meltwater to the subglacial environment and creates moulins, surface-to-bed conduits for future melt. Introduction of water to the subglacial system has been shown to affect ice flow, and modeling suggests that variability in water supply and delivery to the subsurface play an important role in the development of the subglacial hydrologic ...

Bennartz, R., Shupe, M. D., Turner, D. D., Walden, V. P., Steffen, K., Cox, C. J., Kulie, M. S., Miller, N. B., and Pettersen, C.: July 2012 Greenland melt extent enhanced by low-level liquid clouds, Nature, 496, 83–86, 2012.; Box, J. E. and Ski, K.: Remote sounding of Greenland supraglacial melt lakes: implications for subglacial hydraulics, J. Glaciol. 53, 257–265, 2007.; Cazenave, A. and Llovel, W.: Contemporary Sea Level Rise, Ann. Rev. Mar. Sci., 2, 145–173, 2010.; ...

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Paleo Ice Flow and Subglacial Meltwater Dynamics in Pine Island Ba...

By: R. D. Larter; C.-d. Hillenbrand; K. Gohl; F. O. Nitsche; J. A. Smith; S. Jacobs; M. Jakobsson; G. Kuhn; J. B. Anderson

Description: Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York, USA. Increasing evidence for an elaborate subglacial drainage network underneath modern Antarctic ice sheets suggests that basal meltwater has an important influence on ice stream flow. Swath bathymetry surveys from previously glaciated continental margins display morphological features indicative of subglacial meltwater flow in inner shelf areas of some paleo ice stream troug...

Alley, R. B., Blankenship, D., Rooney, S. T., and Bentley, C. R.: Sedimentation beneath ice shelves – the view from Ice Stream B, Mar. Geol., 85, 101–120, 1989.; Anderson, J. B. and Fretwell, L. O.: Geomorphology of the onset area of a paleo-ice stream, Marguerite Bay, Antarctic Peninsula, Earth Surf. Processes, 33, 503–512, 2008.; Anderson, J. B., Shipp, S. S., Lowe, A. L., Wellner, J. S., and Mosola, A. B.: The Antarctic Ice Sheet during the Last Glacial Maximum and it...

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Balanced Conditions or Slight Mass Gain of Glaciers in the Lahaul ...

By: P. Wagnon; A. Linda; E. Berthier; M. F. Azam; D. P. Dobhal; C. Vincent; P. G. Jose; J. Gardelle; P. Sharma; Al. Ramanathan; Y. Arnaud

Description: UJF – Grenoble1 / CNRS, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l´ Environnement (LGGE) UMR 5183, Grenoble, 38041, France. The volume change of the Chhota Shigri Glacier (India, 32° 20 N, 77° 30' E) between 1988 and 2010 has been determined using in situ geodetic measurements. This glacier has experienced only a slight mass loss between 1988 and 2010 (−3.8 ± 2.0 m w.e. (water equivalent) corresponding to −0.17 ± 0.09 m w.e. yr−1). Using sa...

Azam, M. F., Wagnon, P., Ramanathan, A., Vincent, C., Sharma, P., Arnaud, Y., Linda, A., Pottakkal, J., Chevallier, P., Singh, V. B., and Berthier, E.: From balance to imbalance: a shift in the dynamic behaviour of Chhota Shigri Glacier (Western Himalaya, India), J. Glaciol., 58, 315–324, doi:10.3189/2012JoG11J123, 2012.; Cogley, J. G.: Present and future states of Himalaya and Karakoram glaciers, Ann. Glaciol., 52, 201...

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The Growth of Sublimation Crystals and Surface Hoar on the Antarct...

By: J. Savarino; M. Dumont; F. Domine; E. Brun; J.-c. Gallet

Description: Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø, Norway. On the Antarctic plateau, precipitation quantities are so low that the surface mass budget is for an important part determined by exchanges of water vapor between the snow surface and the atmosphere surface. At Dome C (75° S, 123° E), we have frequently observed the growth of crystals on the snow surface under calm sunny weather. Here we present the time variations of specific surface area (SSA) and density of ...

Aoki, T., Fukabori, M., Hachikubo, A., Tachibana, Y., and Nishio, F.: Effects of snow physical parameters on spectral albedo and bidirectional reflectance of snow surface, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 105, 10219–10236, 2000.; Bintanja, R. and Vandenbroeke, M. R.: The surface-energy balance of antarctic snow and blue ice, J. Appl. Meteorol., 34, 902–926, 2.0.co;2>doi:10.1175/1520-0450(1995)034<0902:tseboa>2.0.co...

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Representing Moisture Fluxes and Phase Changes in Glacier Debris C...

By: B. W. Brock; A. B. G. Bush; F. Maussion; L. I. Nicholson; E. Collier; R. Essery

Description: Department of Earth & Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. Due to the complexity of treating moisture in supraglacial debris, surface energy balance models to date have neglected moisture infiltration and phase changes in the debris layer. The latent heat flux (QL) is also often excluded due to the uncertainty in determining the surface vapour pressure. To quantify the importance of moisture on the surface energy and climatic ma...

Aubinet, M., Vesala, T., and Papale, D. (Eds.): Eddy Covariance: a Practical Guide to Measurement and Data Analysis, Springer, Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London, New York, 1–19, 2012.; Bhambri, R., Bolch, T., Chaujar, R. K., and Kulshreshtha, S. C.: Glacier changes in the Garhwal Himalaya, India, from 1968 to 2006 based on remote sensing, J. Glaciol., 57, 543–556, 2011.; Bolch, T., Buchroithner, M., Pieczonka, T., and Kunert, A.: Planimetric and volumetric glacier changes in...

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Study of a Temperature Gradient Metamorphism of Snow from 3-d Imag...

By: C. Geindreau; B. Lesaffre; F. Flin; N. Calonne; S. Rolland Du Roscoat

Description: Météo-France – CNRS, CNRM – GAME UMR3589, CEN, 38400 Saint Martin d'Hères, France. We carried out a study to monitor the time evolution of microstructural and physical properties of snow during temperature gradient metamorphism: a snow slab was subjected to a constant temperature gradient in the vertical direction for 3 weeks in a cold room, and regularly sampled in order to obtain a series of three-dimensional (3-D) images using X-ray microtomography. A...

Akitaya, E.: Studies of depth hoar, Low. Temp. Sci. Ser. A, 26, 1–67, 1974.; Arakawa, H., Izumi, K., Kawashima, K., and Kawamura, T.: Study on quantitative classification of seasonal snow using specific surface area and intrinsic permeability, Cold. Reg. Sci. Technol., 59, 163–168, doi:10.1016/j.coldregions.2009.07.004, 2009.; Auriault, J.-L., Boutin, C., and Geindreau, C.: Homogenization of coupled phenomen...

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Are Seasonal Calving Dynamics Forced by Buttressing from Ice Mélan...

By: P. Christoffersen; J. Todd

Description: Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. We use a full-Stokes 2-D model (Elmer/Ice) to investigate the flow and calving dynamics of Store Glacier, a fast-flowing outlet glacier in West Greenland. Based on a new, subgrid-scale implementation of the crevasse depth calving criterion, we perform two sets of simulations: one to identify the primary forcing mechanisms and another to constrain future stability. We find that the m...

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Ice and Ais: Ship Speed Data and Sea Ice Forecasts in the Baltic S...

By: U. Löptien; L. Axell

Description: GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany. The Baltic Sea is a seasonally ice-covered marginal sea located in a densely populated area in northern Europe. Severe sea ice conditions have the potential to hinder the intense ship traffic considerably. Thus, sea ice fore- and nowcasts are regularly provided by the national weather services. Typically, the forecast comprises several ice properties that are di...

Axell, L.: BSRA-15: A Baltic Sea Reanalysis 1990–2004, Reports Oceanography 45, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden, 2013.; Berking, B.: Potential and benefits of AIS to Ships and Maritime Administration, WMU J. Mar. Affairs, 2, 61–78, doi:10.1007/BF03195034, 2003.; Funkquist, L. and Kleine, E.: HIROMB: An introduction to HIROMB, an operational baroclinic model for the Baltic Sea, Report O...

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Implementation and Evaluation of Prognostic Representations of the...

By: Y. Lejeune; S. Morin; B. Lesaffre; F. Domine; M. Lafaysse; G. Picard; C. M. Carmagnola; L. Arnaud

Description: Météo France – CNRS, CNRM – GAME UMR3589, Centre d'Études de la Neige, Grenoble, France. In the SURFEX/ISBA-Crocus multi-layer snowpack model, the snow microstructure has up to now been characterised by the grain size and by semi-empirical shape variables which cannot be measured easily in the field or linked to other relevant snow properties. In this work we introduce a new formulation of snow metamorphism directly based on equations describing the rat...

Albert, M. and Hawley, R.: Seasonal differences in surface energy exchange and accumulation at Summit, Greenland, Ann. Glaciol., 31, 387–390, 2000.; Albert, M. R. and Shultz, E. F.: Snow and firn properties and air-snow transport processes at Summit, Greenland, Atmos. Environ., 36, 2789–2797, 2002.; Arnaud, L., Picard, G., Champollion, N., Domine, F., Gallet, J.-C., Lefebvre, E., Fily, M., and Barnola, J.-M.: Measurement of vertical profiles of snow specific surface area...

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Wintertime Storage of Water in Buried Supraglacial Lakes Across th...

By: D. J. Lampkin; S. L. Hamilton; L. N. Montgomery; C. A. Joseph; C. Leuschen; P. Gogineni; J. D. Paden; K. A. Casey; S. E. Moutsafa; L. S. Koenig; J. B. Turrin; B. Panzer

Description: Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA. Increased surface melt over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is now estimated to account for half or more of the ice sheet's total mass loss. Here, we show that some meltwater is stored, over winter, in buried supraglacial lakes. We use airborne radar from Operation IceBridge between 2009 and 2012 to detect buried supraglacial lakes, and we find that they were distribute...

Angelen, J. H., Broeke, M. R., Wouters, B., and Lenaerts, J.: Contemporary (1960–2012) evolution of the climate and surface mass balance of the greenland ice sheet, Surv. Geophys., 35, 1155–1174, doi:10.1007/s10712-013-9261-z, 2014.; Benson, C. S.: Stratigraphic studies in the snow and firn of the Greenland ice sheet, No. RR70, COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LAB HANOVER NH, 1962.; Bartholomew, I., Nienow, P.,...

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Evolution of Ossoue Glacier (French Pyrenees) Since the End of the...

By: S. Monnier; T. Houet; M. Schmutz; J. P. Tihay; P. René; O. Ribière; S. Gascoin; R. Marti; J. M. Soubeyroux; T. Condom; C. Camerlynck; D. Laffly

Description: Géographie de l'Environnement (GEODE), UT2J/CNRS, Toulouse, France. Little is known about the fluctuations of the Pyrenean glaciers. In this study, we reconstructed the evolution of Ossoue Glacier (42°46' N, 0.45 km2), which is located in the central Pyrenees, from the Little Ice Age (LIA) onwards. To do so, length, area, thickness, and mass changes in the glacier were generated from historical data sets, topographical surveys, glaciologic...

Berthier, E., Vincent, C., Magnusson, E., Gunnlaugsson, A. p., Pitte, P., Le Meur, E., Masiokas, M., Ruiz, L., Palsson, F., Belart, J. M. C., and Wagnon, P.: Glacier topography and elevation changes derived from Pleiades sub-meter stereo images, The Cryosphere, 8, 2275–2291. doi:10.5194/tc-8-2275-2014, 2014.; Boé, J. and Habets, F.: Multi-decadal river flow variations in France, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 691–708, d...

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Self-regulation of Ice Flow Varies Across the Ablation Area in Sou...

By: M. Stoffelen; W. Boot; J. Oerlemans; C. H. Reijmer; F. Wilhelms; A. Hubbard; M. R. Van Den Broeke; R. S. W. Van De Wal; R. Van Kampen; S. H. Doyle; C. J. P. P. Smeets

Description: Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research Utrecht, Utrecht University, the Netherlands. The concept of a positive feedback between ice flow and enhanced melt rates in a warmer climate fuelled the debate regarding the temporal and spatial controls on seasonal ice acceleration. Here we combine melt, basal water pressure and ice velocity data. Using 20 years of data covering the whole ablation area, we show that there is not a strong positive correlatio...

Andreas, E. L.: A theory for scalar roughness and the scalar coefficients over snow and ice, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 38, 159–184, 1987.; Bartholomaus, T. C., Anderson, R. S., and Anderson, S. P.: Response of glacier basal motion to transient water storage, Nat. Geosci., 1, 33–37, 2008.; Bartholomew, I., Nienow, P., Mair, D., Hubbard, A., King, M. A., and Sole, A.: Seasonal evolution of subglacial drainage and acceleration in a Greenland outlet glacier, Nat. Geosci., 3, 40...

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Configuration of the Northern Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet at Lgm...

By: T. A. Scambos; H.-w. Schenke; E. C. Pettit; J. B. Anderson; D. Amblas; M. Canals; J. Wellner; C. Lavoie; K. C. Yoo; R. D. Larter; J. Gutt; E. W. Domack

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), Borgo Grotta Gigante, Sgonico, 34010, Italy. We present a new seafloor map for the northern Antarctic Peninsula (AP), including swath multibeam data sets from five national programs. Our map allows for the examination and interpretation of Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) paleo-ice-flow paths developed on the seafloor from the preservation of mega-scale glacial lineations, drumlinized featur...

Amblas, D., Urgeles, R., Canals, M., Calafat, A. M., Robesco, M., Camerlenghi, A., Estrada, F., De Batist, M., and Hughes-Clarke, J. E.: Relationship between continental rise development and palaeo-ice sheet dynamics, Northern Antarctic Peninsula Pacific margin, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 25, 933–944, 2006.; Andrews, J. T.: On the reconstruction of pleistocene ice sheets: a review, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 1, 1–30, 1982.; Arndt, J. E., Schenke, H. W., Jakobsson, M., Nitsche, F. ...

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Vertical Profiles of the Specific Surface Area of the Snow at Dome...

By: L. Arnaud; J. Savarino; J.-c. Gallet; G. Picard; F. Domine

Description: CNRS-INSU, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l'Environnement, UMR 5183, BP 96, 38402 Saint-Martin d'Hères, France. The specific surface area (SSA) of snow determines in Part the albedo of snow surfaces and the capacity of the snow to adsorb chemical species and catalyze reactions. Despite these crucial roles, almost no value of snow SSA are available for the largest permanent snow expanse on Earth, the Antarctic. We have measured the first ver...

Alley, R. B.: Firn densification by grain-boundary sliding – a 1st model, J. Phys.-Paris, 48, 249–256, 1987.; Aristidi, E., Agabi, K., Azouit, M., Fossat, E., Vernin, J., Travouillon, T., Lawrence, J. S., Meyer, C., Storey, J. W. V., Halter, B., Roth, W. L., and Walden, V.: An analysis of temperatures and wind speeds above Dome C, Antarctica, Astron. Astrophys., 430, 739–746, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20041876, 2005.; Brandt, R. E. and Warren, S. G.: Solar-heating rates and ...

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Short Term Variations of Tracer Transit Speed on Alpine Glaciers :...

By: M. Funk; T. V. Schuler; M. A. Werder

Description: Versuchsanstalt für Wasserbau, Hydrologie und Glaziologie (VAW), ETH Zürich, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland. We present and interpret the results of a series of tracer experiments conducted on an Alpine glacier over a diurnal discharge cycle. For these injections, a moulin was used into which an ice marginal lake was draining, providing a relatively constant discharge. Measured tracer transit speeds show two diurnal maxima and minima. These findings are qualit...

Chow, V., Maidment, D., and Mays, L.: Applied {H}ydrology, {M}c{G}raw-{H}ill Series in {W}ater {R}esources and {E}nvironmental {E}ngineering, McGraw-{H}ill, 1998.; Clarke, G. C. K.: Lumped-elements analysis of subglacial hydraulic circuits, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 17547–17559, 1996.; Clarke, G. C. K.: Subglacial processes, Annu. Rev. Earth. Pl. Sc., 33, 247–276, doi:10.1146/annurev.earth.33.092203.122621...

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A Numerical Study of Glacier Advance Over Deforming Till : Volume ...

By: G. H. Gudmundsson; G. J.-m. C. Leysinger Vieli

Description: Versuchsanstalt für Wasserbau, Hydrologie und Glaziologie (VAW), ETH Zürich, Switzerland. The advance of a glacier over a deforming sediment layer is analysed numerically. We treat this problem as a contact problem involving two slowly-deforming viscous bodies. The surface evolution of both bodies, and that of the contact interface between them, is followed in time. Using various different till rheologies we show how the mode of advance d...

MacAyeal, D. R.: The Basal stress distribution of I}ce {S}tream {E, {A}ntarctica, inferred by control methods, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 596–603, 1992.; A{d}algeirsd{ó}ttir, G., Gudmundsson, G. H., and Bj{ö}rnsson, H.: The response of a glacier to a surface disturbance, a case study on {V}atnaj{ö}kull ice cap, Ann. Glaciol., 31, 104–110, 2000.; Albrecht, O., Jansson, P., and Blatter, H.: Modelling glacier response to measured mass balance forcing, Ann. Glaciol., 31, 91–96, 2...

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Melt Ponds on Arctic Sea Ice Determined from Modis Satellite Data ...

By: L. Kaleschke; G. Birnbaum; A. Rösel

Description: Institute of Oceanography, University of Hamburg, Bundesstr. 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany. Melt ponds on sea ice strongly reduce the surface albedo and accelerate the decay of Arctic sea ice. Due to different spectral properties of snow, ice, and water, the fractional coverage of these distinct surface types can be derived from multispectral sensors like MODIS using a spectral unmixing algorithm. The unmixing was implemented using a multila...

Atkinson, P. M. and Tatnall, A. R. L.: Introduction – neural networks in remote sensing, Int. J. Remote Sens., 18, 699–709, doi:10.1080/014311697218700, 1997.; Birnbaum, G., Dierking, W., Hartmann, J., Lüpkes, C., Ehrlich, A., Garbrecht, T., and Sellmann, M. (Eds.): The Campaign MELTEX with Research Aircraft POLAR 5 in the Arctic in 2008, Berichte zur Polar- und Meeresforschung/Reports on Polar and Marine Research, 59...

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Recent Acceleration of Ice Loss in the Northern Patagonia Icefield...

By: G. Casassa; P. López

Description: Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia, Chile. Ice elevation changes of the Northern Patagonia Icefield (NPI) were analyzed by comparing three Digital Elevation Models (DEM) corresponding to 1975 (constructed based on topographic maps), the SRTM DEM of 2000 yr and a SPOT 5 DEM of 2005. In addition, the glacier length fluctuations and the surface area evolution between 2001 and 2011 of 25 glaciers of the NPI were studied: the in...

Casassa, G., Sepulveda, F., and Sinclair, R. (Eds.): The Patagonian Icefields, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, Valdivia, Chile, 192 pp., 2002.; Aniya, M.: Glacier inventory for the Northern Patagonia Icefield, Chile, and variations 1944/45 to 1985/86, Arctic Alpine Res., 20, 179–187, 1988.; Aniya, M.: Glacier variation in the Northern Patagonia Icefield, Chile, between 1985/86 and 1990/91, Bulletin of Glaciological Research, 10, 83–90, 1992.; Aniya, M.: Recent glacier...

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Simulating the Growth of Supra-glacial Lakes at the Western Margin...

By: A. Sundal; S. Palmer; A. A. Leeson; X. Fettweis; A. Shepherd

Description: School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK. We present a method of modelling the growth of supra-glacial lakes at the western margin of the Greenland ice sheet, based on routeing runoff estimated by a Regional Climate Model (RCM) across a digital elevation model (DEM) of the ice sheet surface. Using data acquired during the 2003 melt season, we demonstrate that the model is 18 times more likely to correctly predict the pres...

Box, J. E. and Ski, K.: Remote sounding of Greenland supraglacial melt lakes: implications for subglacial hydraulics, J. Glaciol., 53, 257–265, 2007.; Bamber, J. L., Layberry, R. L., and Gogineni, S.: A new ice thickness and bed data set for the Greenland ice sheet 1. Measurement, data reduction, and errors, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 106, 33773–33780, 2001.; Bartholomew, I. D., Nienow, P., Sole, A., Mair, D., Cowton, T., King, M. A., and Palmer, S.: Seasonal variations in...

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