World Library  



Sociolinguistics


It is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and the effects of language use on society. Sociolinguistics differs from sociology of language in that the focus of sociolinguistics is the effect of the society on the language, while the latter's focus is on the language's effect on the society. Sociolinguistics overlaps to a considerable degree with pragmatics. It is historically closely related to linguistic anthropology and the distinction between the two fields has even been questioned recently.

 
  • Cover Image

Ice Tectonics During the Rapid Tapping of a Supraglacial Lake on t...

By: G. A. Jones; A. Gusmeroli; S. H. Doyle; A. Fitzpatrick; R. Pettersson; J. E. Box; B. Kulessa; A. L. Hubbard; C. F. Dow; K. Lindback

Description: Centre for Glaciology, Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, SY23 3DB, UK. The hydraulic fracture of ice during the rapid tapping of supraglacial lakes is proposed as one mechanism to establish efficient surface-to-bed hydraulic pathways through kilometre-thick ice. This study presents detailed records of lake discharge, ice motion, and passive seismicity capturing the behaviour and processes preceding, dur...

Alley, R., Dupont, T., Parizek, B., and Anandakrishnan, S.: Access of surface meltwater to beds of sub-freezing glaciers: preliminary insights, Ann. Glaciol., 40, 8–13, 2005.; Bamber, J., Alley, R., and Joughin, I.: Rapid response of modern day ice sheets to external forcing, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 27, 1–13, 2007.; Bartholomaus, T., Anderson, R., and Anderson, S.: Response of glacier motion to transient water storage, Nat. Geosci., 1, 33–37, 2008.; Box, J. and Ski, K.:...

Read More
  • Cover Image

The Role of Cornice Fall Avalanche Sedimentation in the Valley Lon...

By: L. Rubensdotter; S. Vogel; M. Eckerstorfer; H. H. Christiansen

Description: Arctic Geology Department, University Centre in Svalbard, P.O. Box 156, 9171 Longyearbyen, Norway. In arctic and alpine high relief landscapes snow avalanches are traditionally ranked behind rockfall in terms of their significance for mass wasting processes of rock slopes. Cornice fall avalanches are at present the most dominant snow avalanche type at two slope systems, called Nybyen and Larsbreen, in the valley Longyeardalen in Central Svalbard. Both ...

Ackroyd, P.: Erosion by snow avalanche and implications for geomorphic stability, Torlesse Range, New Zealand, Arct. Alp. Res., 19, 65–70, 1987.; Åkerman, H. J.: Notes on talus morphology and processes in Spitsbergen, Geogr. Ann. A, 66, 17, 267–285, 1984.; Åkerman, H. J.: Relations between slow slope processes and active-layer thickness 1972–2002, Kapp Linne, Svalbard, Norsk Geogr. Tidsskr., 59, 116–128, 2005.; André, M.-F.: Geomorphic impact of spring avalanches in Nort...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Predicting Subglacial Lakes and Meltwater Drainage Pathways Beneat...

By: J. Woodward; S. J. Livingstone; C. D. Clark

Description: Department of Geography, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK. In this paper we use the Shreve hydraulic potential equation to predict subglacial lakes and meltwater drainage pathways beneath the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. For the Antarctic Ice Sheet we are able to predict known subglacial lakes with a >70% success rate, which demonstrates the validity of this method. Despite the success in predicting known subglacial lakes the ...

Anandakrishnan, S. and Alley, R. B.: Stagnation of Ice Stream C, West Antarctica by water piracy, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 265–268, 1997.; Anderson, J. B. and Oakes-Fretwell, L.: Geomorphology of the onset area of a palaeo-ice stream, Marguerite Bay, Antarctic Peninsula, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 33, 503–512, 2008.; Bamber J. L., Layberry, R. L., and Gogineni, S. P.: A new ice thickness and bed data set for the Greenland Ice Sheet: 1. Measurement, data reduction, and erro...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Surface Motion of Active Rock Glaciers in the Sierra Nevada, Calif...

By: Zebker; C. I. Lin Liu; R. D. Millar; H. A. Westfall

Description: Department of Geophysics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. Despite the abundance of rock glaciers in the Sierra Nevada of California, USA, few efforts have been made to measure their surface flow. Here we use the interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) technique to compile a~benchmark inventory describing the kinematic state of 59 active rock glaciers in this region. Statistically, these rock glaciers moved at speeds range...

Barsch, D.: Rockglaciers: Indicators for the Present and Former Geoecology in High Mountain Environments, Springer, Berlin, 1996.; Arenson, L., Hoelzle, M., and Springman, S.: Borehole deformation measurements and internal structure of some rock glaciers in Switzerland, Permafrost Periglac., 13, 117–135, doi:10.1002/ppp.414, 2002.; Avian, M., Kellerer-Pirklbauer, A., and Bauer, A.: LiDAR for monitoring mass movements in perma...

Read More
  • Cover Image

A Ten-year Record of Supraglacial Lake Evolution and Rapid Drainag...

By: L. C. Andrews; J. W. Chipman; M. J. Hoffman; M. P. Lüthi; B. F. Morriss; R. L. Hawley; G. A. Catania; T. A. Neumann

Description: Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA. The rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes introduces large pulses of meltwater to the subglacial environment and creates moulins, surface-to-bed conduits for future melt. Introduction of water to the subglacial system has been shown to affect ice flow, and modeling suggests that variability in water supply and delivery to the subsurface play an important role in the development of the subglacial hydr...

Bennartz, R., Shupe, M. D., Turner, D. D., Walden, V. P., Steffen, K., Cox, C. J., Kulie, M. S., Miller, N. B., and Pettersen, C.: July 2012 Greenland melt extent enhanced by low-level liquid clouds, Nature, 496, 83–86, 2012.; Box, J. E. and Ski, K.: Remote sounding of Greenland supraglacial melt lakes: implications for subglacial hydraulics, J. Glaciol., 53, 257–265, 2007.; Cazenave, A. and Llovel, W.: Contemporary sea level rise, Annual Review of Marine Science, 2, 145...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Implementation and Evaluation of Prognostic Representations of the...

By: C. M. Carmagnola; M. Lafaysse; F. Domine; B. Lesaffre; Y. Lejeune; S. Morin; G. Picard; L. Arnaud

Description: Météo France – CNRS, CNRM – GAME UMR3589, Centre d'\'Etudes de la Neige, Grenoble, France. In the SURFEX/ISBA-Crocus multi-layer snowpack model, the snow microstructure was up to now characterized by the grain size and by semi-empirical shape variables which cannot be measured easily in the field or linked to other relevant snow properties. In this work we introduce a new formulation of snow metamorphism directly based on equations describing the rate of...

Albert, M. and Hawley, R.: Seasonal differences in surface energy exchange and accumulation at Summit, Greenland, Ann. Glaciol., 31, 387–390, 2000.; Albert, M. R. and Shultz, E. F.: Snow and firn properties and air-snow transport processes at Summit, Greenland, Atmos. Environ., 36, 2789–2797, 2002.; Arnaud, L., Picard, G., Champollion, N., Domine, F., Gallet, J.-C., Lefebvre, E., Fily, M., and Barnola, J.-M.: Measurement of vertical profiles of snow specific surface area...

Read More
  • Cover Image

The Growth of Sublimation Crystals and Surface Hoar on the Antarct...

By: J.-c. Gallet; E. Brun; J. Savarino; F. Domine; M. Dumont

Description: CNRS, LGGE, 38041 Grenoble, France. On the Antarctic plateau, the budget of water vapor and energy is in part determined by precipitation, but these are so low that the dynamic of snow crystal growth and sublimation at the surface can be important factors. At Dome C (75° S, 123° E), we have frequently observed the growth of crystals on the snow surface under calm sunny weather. Here, we present the time variations of specific surface area and density of t...

Aoki, T., Fukabori, M., Hachikubo, A., Tachibana, Y., and Nishio, F.: Effects of snow physical parameters on spectral albedo and bidirectional reflectance of snow surface, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 10219–10236, 2000.; Bintanja, R. and Vandenbroeke, M. R.: The surface-energy balance of antarctic snow and blue ice, J. Appl. Meteorol., 34, 902–926, 2.0.co;2>doi:10.1175/1520-0450(1995)034<0902:tseboa>2.0.co;2,...

Read More
  • Cover Image

High-resolution Modelling of the Seasonal Evolution of Surface Wat...

By: A. F. Banwell; I. C. Willis; N. S. Arnold

Description: Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1ER, UK. Seasonal meltwater lakes on the Greenland Ice Sheet form when surface runoff is temporarily trapped in surface topographic depressions. The development of such lakes affects both the surface energy balance and dynamics of the ice sheet. Although areal extents, depths, and lifespans of lakes can be inferred from satellite imagery, such observational studi...

Arnold, N. S.: A new approach for dealing with depressions in digital elevation models when calculating flow accumulation values, Prog. Phys. Geog., 34, 781–809, doi:10.1177/0309133310384542, 2010.; Arnold, N., Richards, K., Willis, I., and Sharp, M.: Initial results from a distributed, physically based model of glacier hydrology, Hydrol. Process., 12, 191–219,

Read More
  • Cover Image

Study of a Temperature Gradient Metamorphism of Snow from 3-d Ima...

By: F. Flin; C. Geindreau; B. Lesaffre; N. Calonne; S. Rolland Du Roscoat

Description: Météo-France – CNRS, CNRM-GAME UMR 3589, CEN, 38400 Saint Martin d'Hères, France. We carried out a study to monitor the time evolution of microstructural and physical properties of snow during a temperature gradient metamorphism: a snow slab was subjected to a constant temperature gradient along the vertical during three weeks in a cold-room, and regularly sampled in order to obtain a set of 3-D images using X-ray microtomography. A large panel of prope...

Akitaya, E.: Studies of depth hoar, Low. Temp. Sci. Series A, 26, 1–67, 1974.; Arakawa, H., Izumi, K., Kawashima, K., and Kawamura, T.: Study on quantitative classification of seasonal snow using specific surface area and intrinsic permeability, Cold. Reg. Sci. Technol., 59, 163–168, doi:10.1016/j.coldregions.2009.07.004, 2009.; Auriault, J.-L., Boutin, C., and Geindreau, C.: Homogenization of coupled phenom...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Influence of Stress, Temperature and Crystal Habit on Isothermal D...

By: M. Schneebeli; H. Löwe; S. Schleef

Description: WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF, Davos, Switzerland. Laboratory-based, experimental data for the microstructural evolution of new snow is scarce, though applications would benefit from a quantitative characterization of the main mechanism underlying the initial microstructural changes. To this end we have analyzed the metamorphism and concurrent densification of new snow under isothermal conditions by means of X-ray microtomography and...

Arnaud, L., Barnola, J. M., and Duval, P.: Physical modeling of the densification of snow/firn and ice in the upper part of polar ice sheets, in: Physics of Ice Core Records, vol. 159, edited by: Hondoh, T., Hokkaido University Press, Sapporo, Japan, 285–305, 2000.; Arnaud, L., Picard, G., Champollion, N., Dominé, F., Gallet, J.-C., Lefebvre, E., Fily, M., and Barnola, J. M.: Measurement of vertical profiles of snow specific surface area with a 1 cm resoluti...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Glacier-like Forms on Mars : Volume 8, Issue 3 (05/06/2014)

By: C. Souness; S. Brough; B. Hubbard

Description: Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, UK. Over 1300 glacier-like forms (GLFs) are located in Mars' mid-latitudes. These GLFs are visually similar to terrestrial valley glaciers, being predominantly composed of ice-dust mixtures and showing signs of downhill viscous deformation and of an expanded former extent. However, several fundamental aspects of their behaviour are virtually unknown, including temporal and ...

Hudson, T. L., Aharonson, O., and Schorghofer, N.: Laboratory experiments and models of diffusive emplacement of ground ice on Mars, J. Geophys. Res.-Planet., 114, E01002, doi:10.1029/2008JE003149, 2009.; Kargel, J. S., Baker, V. R., Beget, J. E., Lockwood, J. F., Pewe, T. L., Shaw, J. S., and Strom, R. G.: Evidence of ancient continental-glaciation in the martian northern plains, J. Geophys. Res.-Planet., 100, 5351–5368...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Are Seasonal Calving Dynamics Forced by Buttressing from Ice Mélan...

By: P. Christoffersen; J. Todd

Description: Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. We use a full-Stokes 2-D model (Elmer/Ice) to investigate the flow and calving dynamics of Store Gletscher, a fast flowing outlet glacier in West Greenland. Based on a new, subgrid-scale implementation of the crevasse depth calving criterion, we perform two sets of simulations; one to identify the primary forcing mechanisms and another to constrain future stability. We find tha...

Amundson, J. M., Truffer, M., Lüthi, M. P., Fahnestock, M., West, M., and Motyka, R. J.: Glacier, fjord, and seismic response to recent large calving events, Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L22501, doi:10.1029/2008GL035281, 2008.; Amundson, J. M., Fahnestock, M., Truffer, M., Brown, J., Lüthi, M. P., and Motyka, R. J.: Ice mélange dynamics and implications for terminus stability, Jakobshavn Isbræ, G...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Ice and Ais: Ship Speed Data and Sea Ice Forecasts in the Baltic S...

By: U. Löptien; L. Axell

Description: GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany. The Baltic Sea is a seasonally ice covered marginal sea located in a densely populated area in northern Europe. Severe sea ice conditions have the potential to hinder the intense ship traffic considerably. Thus, sea ice fore- and nowcasts are regularly provided by the national weather services. Typically, several ice properties are allocated, but their actual us...

Axell, L.: BSRA-15: A Baltic Sea Reanalysis 1990–2004, Reports Oceanography 45, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden, 1–66, 2013.; Berking, B.: Potential and benefits of AIS to ships and maritime administration, WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs, 2, 61–78, doi:10.1007/BF03195034, 2003.; Funkquist, L. and Kleine, E.: HIROMB: An introduction to HIROMB, an operational baroclinic model for the Ba...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Wintertime Storage of Water in Buried Supraglacial Lakes Across th...

By: L. N. Montgomery; S. L. Hamilton; C. A. Joseph; C. Leuschen; P. Gogineni; L. S. Koenig; J. B. Turrin; J. D. Paden; K. A. Casey; S. E. Moutsafa; B. Panzer; D. J. Lampkin

Description: Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA. Surface melt over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is increasing and estimated to account for half or more of the total mass loss. Little, however, is known about the hydrologic pathways that route surface melt within the ice sheet. In this study, we present over-winter storage of water in buried supraglacial lakes as one hydrologic pathway for surface melt, referred t...

Alley, R. B., Dupont, T. K., Parizek, B. R., and Anandakrishnan, S.: Access of surface meltwater to beds of sub-freezing glaciers: preliminary insights, Ann. Glaciol., 40, 8–14, 2005.; Benson, C. S.: Stratiraphic studies in the snow and firn of the Greenland Ice sheet, SIPRE Res. Rep., US Army Corps of Engineers, 70, 1962.; Bartholomew, I., Nienow, P., Sole, A., Mair, D., Cowton, T., Palmer, S., and Wadham, J.: Supraglacial forcing of subglacial drainage in the ablation ...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Self-regulation of Ice Flow Varies Across the Ablation Area in Sou...

By: F. Wilhelms; J. Oerlemans; R. Van Kampen; R. S. W. Van De Wal; M. R. Van Den Broeke; C. H. Reijmer; W. Boot; M. Stoffelen; S. Doyle; C. J. P. P. Smeets; A. Hubbard

Description: Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands. The concept of a positive feedback between ice flow and enhanced melt rates in a warmer climate fuelled the debate regarding the temporal and spatial controls on seasonal ice acceleration. Here we combine melt, basal water pressure, and ice velocity data. We show using twenty years of data covering the whole ablation area that there is no strong fee...

Bartholomaus, T. C., Anderson, R. S. and Anderson, S. P.: Response of glacier basal motion to transient water storage, Nat. Geosci., 1, 33–37, 2008.; Bartholomew, I., Nienow, P., Mair, D., Hubbard, A., and King, M. A.: Seasonal evolution of subglacial drainage and acceleration in a Greenland outlet glacier, Nat. Geosci., 3, 408–411, 2010.; Bartholomew, I., Nienow, P., Sole, A., Mair, D., Cowton, T., King, M. A., and Palmer, S.: Seasonal variations in Greenland Ice Sheet ...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Paleo-ice Flow Directions of the Northern Antarctic Peninsula Ice ...

By: E. W. Domack; E. C. Pettit; T. A. Scambos; D. Amblas; J. B. Anderson; K. C. Yoo; J. Wellner; R. D. Larter; M. Canals; C. Lavoie; H.-w. Schenke; J. Gutt

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), 34010 Borgo Grotta Gigante, Sgonico, Italy. We present a new seafloor map for the northern Antarctic Peninsula (AP), including swath multibeam data sets from five national programs. Our map allows for the examination and interpretation of Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) paleo-ice sheet/stream flow directions developed upon the seafloor from the preservation of: mega-scale glacial lineatio...

Amblas, D., Urgeles, R., Canals, M., Calafat, A. M., Robesco, M., Camerlenghi, A., Estrada, F., De Batist, M., and Hughes-Clarke, J. E.: Relationship between continental rise development and palaeo-ice sheet dynamics, Northern Antarctic Peninsula Pacific margin, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 25, 933–944, 2006.; Andrews, J. T.: On the reconstitution of pleistocene ice sheets: a review, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 1, 1–30, 1982.; Arndt, J. E., Schenke, H. W., Jakobsson, M., Nitsche, F. ...

Read More
  • Cover Image

A MacRoscale Mixture Theory Analysis of Deposition and Sublimation...

By: A. C. Hansen; W. E. Foslien

Description: Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA. The microstructure of a dry alpine snowpack is a dynamic environment where microstructural evolution is driven by seasonal density profiles and weather conditions. Notably, temperature gradients on the order of 10–20 K m−1, or larger, are known to produce a faceted snow microstructure exhibiting little strength. However, while strong temperatur...

Adams, E. and Brown, R.: Further results on studies of temperature gradient metamorphism, J. Glaciol., 28, 205–209, 1982.; Adams, E. and Brown, R.: A mixture theory for evaluating heat and mass transport processes in nonhomogeneous snow, Continuum Mech. Therm., 2, 31–63, 1990.; Auriault, J.-L., Boution, C., and Geindreau, C.: Homogenization of Coupled Phenomena in Heterogeneous Media, John Wiley and Sons, London, 2009.; Bird, R. B., Stewart, W. E., and Lightfoot, E.: Tra...

Read More
  • Cover Image

An Analytical Model for Wind-driven Arctic Summer Sea Ice Drift : ...

By: A. L. Stewart; H.-s. Park

Description: Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon, South Korea. The authors present an approximate analytical model for wind-induced sea-ice drift that includes an ice–ocean boundary layer with an Ekman spiral in the ocean velocity. This model provides an analytically tractable solution that is most applicable to the marginal ice zone, where sea-ice concentration is substantially below 100%. The model closely reproduces the ice and upper-oce...

McPhee, M. G.: On the turbulent mixing length in the oceanic boundary layer, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 2014–2031, 1994.; Bitz, C. M., Fyfe, J., and Flato, G.: Sea ice response to wind forcing from AMIP models, J. Climate, 15, 522–536, 2002.; Bitz, C. M. and Polvani, L. M.: Antarctic climate response to stratospheric ozone depletion in a fine resolution ocean climate model, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L20705, doi:10.1029/2012GL053...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Numerical Simulation of Formation and Preservation of Ningwu Ice C...

By: S. Yang; Y. Shi

Description: Key Laboratory of Computational Geodynamics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China. Ice caves exist in locations where annual average temperature in higher than 0 °C. An example is Ningwu ice cave, Shanxi Province, the largest ice cave in China. In order to quantitatively explain the mechanism of formation and preservation of the ice cave, we use Finite Element Method to simulate the heat transfer process at this ice cave. There are two...

Bella, P.: Morphology of ice surface in the Dobšiná Ice Cave, 2nd International Workshop on Ice Caves, Demänovská Dolina, Slovak Republic, 2006,; Cebeci, T.: Laminar-free-convective-heat transfer from the outer surface of a vertical slender circular cylinder, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference, Tokyo, Japan, 15–19, 1974.; Chen, S.: Cave Tourism Science, Fujian People's Publishing House, Fuzhou, 2003.; Fairchild, I. J. and Baker, A.: Speleothem Science: From ...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Evolution of Ossoue Glacier (French Pyrenees) Since the End of the...

By: O. Ribière; T. Condom; J. M. Soubeyroux; T. Houet; S. Monnier; C. Camerlynck; J. P. Tihay; P. René; R. Marti; M. Schmutz; D. Laffly; S. Gascoin

Description: Géographie de l'Environnement (GEODE), Toulouse, France. Long-term climate records are rare at high elevations in Southern Europe. Here, we reconstructed the evolution of Ossoue Glacier (42°46' N, 0.45 km2), located in the Pyrenees (3404 m a.s.l.), since the Little Ice Age (LIA). Glacier length, area, thickness and mass changes indicators were generated from historical datasets, topographic surveys, glaciological measurements (2001–201...

Boé, J. and Habets, F.: Multi-decadal river flow variations in France, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 691–708, doi:10.5194/hess-18-691-2014, 2014.; Bonaparte, p. R.: Les variations périodiques des glaciers français, Typographie Chamerot et Renouard, available at: http://www.worldcat.org/title/variations-periodiques-des-glac...

Read More
 
Records: 57221 - 57240 of 57,311 - Pages: 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Fair are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.