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Sociolinguistics


It is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and the effects of language use on society. Sociolinguistics differs from sociology of language in that the focus of sociolinguistics is the effect of the society on the language, while the latter's focus is on the language's effect on the society. Sociolinguistics overlaps to a considerable degree with pragmatics. It is historically closely related to linguistic anthropology and the distinction between the two fields has even been questioned recently.

 
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Linking Catchment-scale Subglacial Discharge to Subsurface Glacial...

By: A. L. Kukulya; L. A. Stevens; M. Morlighem; F. Straneo; A. J. Plueddemann; S. B. Das

Description: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Joint Program in Oceanography, Applied Ocean Science and Engineering, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA. Measurements of near-ice (< 200 m) hydrography and near-terminus subglacial hydrology are lacking due in large part to the difficulty in working at the margin of calving glaciers. Here we pair detailed hydrographic and bathymetric measurements collected with an Autonomous Underwater V...

Andrews, L. C., Catania, G. A., Hoffman, M. J., Gulley, J. D., Lüthi, M. P., Ryser, C., Hawley, R. L., and Neumann, T. A.: Direct observations of evolving subglacial drainage beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet, Nature, 514, 80–83, doi:10.1038/nature13796, 2014.; Bamber, J., van den Broeke, M., Ettema, J., Lenaerts, J., and Rignot, E.: Recent large increases in freshwater fluxes from Greenland into the North Atlantic, Geophys...

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Extraordinary Runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet in 2012 Amplifie...

By: J. Box; A. Fitzpatrick; A. Hubbard; M. MacFerrin; S. Doyle; A. B. Mikkelsen; B. Hasholt; H. Bailey

Description: Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. It has been argued that the infiltration and retention of meltwater within firn across the percolation zone of the Greenland ice sheet has the potential to buffer up to ~3.6 mm of global sea level rise (Harper et al., 2012). Despite evidence confirming active refreezing processes above the equilibrium line, their impact on runoff and proglacial dischar...

Bennartz, R., Shupe, M. D., Turner, D. D., Walden, V. P., Steffen, K., Cox, C. J., Kulie, M. S., Miller, N. B., and Pettersen, C.: July 2012 Greenland melt extent enhanced by low-level liquid clouds, Nature, 496, 83–86, 2013.; Box, J. E. and Ski, K.: Remote sounding of Greenland supraglacial melt lakes: implications for subglacial hydraulics, J. Glaciol., 53, 257–265, 2007.; Box, J. E., Bromwich, D. H., and Bai, L.-S.: Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance 1991–2000: ...

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Tomography-based Observation of Sublimation and Snow Metamorphism ...

By: M. Schneebeli; A. Steinfeld; P. P. Ebner

Description: Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland. Snow at or close to the surface commonly undergoes temperature gradient metamorphism under advective flow, which alters its microstructure and physical properties. Time-lapse X-ray micro-tomography is applied to investigate the structural dynamics of temperature gradient snow metamorphism exposed to an advective airflow in controlled laboratory conditions. The s...

Albert, M. R.: Effects of snow and firn ventilation on sublimation rates, Ann. Glaciol., 35, 52–56, 2002.; Albert, M. R. and Hardy, J. P.: Ventilation experiments in a seasonal snow cover, in: Biogeochemistry of Seasonally Snow-Covered Catchments, IAHS Publ. 228, edited by: Tonnessen, K. A., Williams, M. W., and Tranter, M., IAHS Press, Wallingford, UK, 41–49, 1995.; Albert, M. R. and McGilvary, W. R.: Thermal effects due to air flow and vapor transport in dry snow, J. G...

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A Perspective on the Importance of Within-tree Variation in Mortal...

By: C. Low; D. Hanley

Description: Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. Within-tree variation in abiotic conditions can create a mosaic of fitness gradients for herbivorous insects. To explore these effects, we quantified the patterns of mortality of the solitary oak leafminer, Cameraria hamadryadella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), which lives within leaves of white oak, Quercus alba. We found differential patterns of survival and larval feeding rate within the tree and in ...

Benrey, B. and Denno, R. F.: The slow-growth-high-mortality hypothesis: a test using the cabbage butterfly, Ecology, 78, 987–999, 1997.; Chai, P. and Srygley, R. B.: Predation and the flight, morphology, and temperature of Neotropical rain-forest butterflies, Am. Nat., 135, 748–765, 1990.; Alonso, C.: Choosing a place to grow: Importance of within-plant abiotic microenvironment for Yponomeuta mahalebella, Entomol. Exp. Appl., 83, 171–180, 1997.; Awmack, C. S. and ...

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World Health Organization : (Emro) Regional Office for the Eastern...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Notes Effect of changes of temperature on the susceptibility to dieldrn of adult Aedes aegvpli- W. R. Bt.anrb Williirlz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Anisol-a convenient immerson medurn for microscopy-L. J. Brr,ce-Clrrnrr.......... 151 Measurement of adsorpt on of residual nsecticides using flowing chromatography- 3. M. Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

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Works : Volume 1

By: Balfour, Francis M. (Francis Maitland), 1851-1882
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Works : Volume 2

By: Balfour, Francis M. (Francis Maitland), 1851-1882
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Works : Volume 3

By: Balfour, Francis M. (Francis Maitland), 1851-1882
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Works : Volume 4

By: Balfour, Francis M. (Francis Maitland), 1851-1882
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New Englander and Yale Review : Volume 0026, Issue 101 October 186...

By: W. L. Kingsley

Description:The Yale Review is the self-proclaimed oldest literary quarterly in the United States. It is published by Yale University.

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New Englander and Yale Review : Volume 0026, Issue 98 January 1867...

By: W. L. Kingsley

Description:The Yale Review is the self-proclaimed oldest literary quarterly in the United States. It is published by Yale University.

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New Englander and Yale Review : Volume 0032, Issue 122 January 187...

By: W. L. Kingsley

Description:The Yale Review is the self-proclaimed oldest literary quarterly in the United States. It is published by Yale University.

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Place Names of Hawaii - Hawaii Dictionary

By: Mary Kawena Pukui

In this book the authors endeavor to provide the people of the State of Hawaii with a glossary of important place names in the State, including names of valleys, streams, mountains, land sections, surfing areas, towns, villages, and Honolulu streets and buildings. The first edition of Place Names of Hawaii contained only 1,125 entries. The coverage is expanded in the present edition to include about 4,000 entries, including names in English. Individual entries have been...

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Aerosol and Thermodynamic Effects on Tropical Cloud Systems During...

By: G. Allen; G. Vaughan; P. Connolly; P. T. May

Description: Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research – A partnership between the Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO, Australia. Regularly occurring storms over the Tiwi Islands, north of Darwin, Australia are used as a laboratory for investigating the relative importance of thermodynamic parameters, shear and aerosols on the amount and intensity of convection over the islands during the pre-monsoon and monsoon break periods of the 2005–2006 summer wet season....

% vor jede Referenz Allan, J. D., Jimenez, J. L., Williams, P. I., Alfarra, M. E., Bower, K. N, Jayne, J. T., Coe, H., and Worsnop, D. R.: Quantitative sampling using an Aerodyne Mass Spectrometer 1, Techniques of data interpretation and error analysis, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 108, 4090–4099, 2003.; % vor jede Referenz Allan, J. D., Coe H., Bower, K., N., Alfarra, M. R., Delia, A. E., Jimenez, J. L., Middlebrook, A. M., Drewnick, F., Onasch, T. B., Canagaratna, M. R., J...

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Aerosol Hygroscopicity in the Marine Atmosphere: a Closure Study U...

By: S. P. Hersey; A. Sorooshian; S. M. Murphy; R. C. Flagan; J. H. Seinfeld

Description: Departments of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Science and Engineering, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. We have conducted the first airborne hygroscopic growth closure study to utilize data from an Aerodyne compact Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) coupled with size-resolved, multiple-RH, high-time-resolution hygroscopic growth factor (GF) measurements from the differential aerosol sizing and hygroscopicity spectrometer probe ...

Aiken, A. C., DeCarlo, P F., Kroll, J., Worsnop, D., J.A., H., Docherty, K., Ulbrich, I., Mohr, C., Kimmel, J., Sueper, D., Sun, Y., Zhang, Q., Trimborn, A., Northway, M., Ziemann, P., Canagaratna, M., Onsach, T., Alfarra, M., Prevot, A., Dommen, J., Duplissy, J., Metzger, A., Baltensperger, U., and Jimenez, J. L.: O/C and OM/OC Ratios of Primary, Secondary, and Ambient Organic Aerosols with High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometry, Environ. Sci. Technol....

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Measurements of Particle Masses of Inorganic Salt Particles for Ca...

By: M. Kuwata; Y. Kondo

Description: Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. We measured the mobility equivalent critical dry diameter for cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation (dc_me) and the particle mass of size-selected (NH4)2SO4 and NaCl particles to calibrate a CCN counter (CCNC) precisely. The CCNC was operated downstream of a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) for the measur...

Allen, M. D. and Raabe, O. G.: Slip correction measurements of spherical solid aerosol particles in an improved Millikan apparatus, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 4, 269–286, 1985.; Archer, D. G. and Wang, P.: The dielectric constant of water and Debye-Hückel limiting law slopes, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 19, 371–411, 1990.; Archer, D. G.: Thermodynamic properties of the NaBr + H2O system, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 20, 509–535, 1991.; Archer, D. G.: Thermodynamic propert...

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Spectral Invariant Behavior of Zenith Radiance Around Cloud Edges ...

By: Y. Knyazikhin; W. J. Wiscombe; A. Marshak; J. C. Chiu

Description: University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD, USA. A previous paper discovered a surprising spectral-invariant relationship in shortwave spectrometer observations taken by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. Here, using radiative transfer simulations, we study the sensitivity of this relationship to the properties of aerosols and clouds, to the underlying surface type, and to the finite field-of-view (FOV) of the spectrometer....

Baker, M. B. and Latham, J.: The evolution of droplet spectra and the rate of production of embryonic raindrops in small cumulus clouds, J. Atmos. Sci., 36, 1612–1615, 1979.; Baker, M. B., Corbin, R. G., and Latham, J.: The influence of entrainment on the evolution of cloud droplet spectra: 1. A model of inhomogeneous mixing. Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 106, 581–598, 1980.; Charlson, R. J., Ackerman, A. S., Bender, F. A.-M., Anderson, T. L., and Liu, Z.: On the climate forc...

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Cloud MacRoscopic Organization: Order Emerging from Randomness : V...

By: T. Yuan

Description: Joint Center for Environmental Technology, UMBC, Baltimore, MD, USA. Clouds play a central role in many aspects of the climate system and their forms and shapes are remarkably diverse. Appropriate representation of clouds in climate models is a major challenge because cloud processes span at least eight orders of magnitude in spatial scales. Here we show that there exists order in cloud size distribution of low-level clouds and it follows a power-law di...

Hartmann, D. L. and Doelling, D.: On the net radiative effectiveness of cloudss, J. Geophys. Res-Atmos., 96(D1), 869–891, 1991.; Cahalan, R. F., Ridgway, W., Wiscombe, W. J., Bell, T. L., and Snider, J. B.: The albedo of fractal stratocumulus clouds, J. Atmos. Sci., 51(16), 2434–2455, 1994.; Albert, R. and Barabasi, A. L.: Statistical mechanics of complex networks, Rev. Mod. Phys., 74(1), 47–97, 2002.; Barabasi, A. L. and Albert, R.: Emergence of scaling in random networ...

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Sensitivity Analysis of an Updated Bidirectional Air-surface Excha...

By: X. Feng; C.-j. Lin; X. Wang

Description: State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, China. A box model for estimating bidirectional air-surface exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) has been updated based on the latest understanding of the resistance scheme of atmosphere–biosphere interface transfer. Simulations were performed for two seasonal months to evaluate diurnal and seasonal variation. The b...

Akkarappuram, A. F. and Raman, S.: A comparison of surface friction velocities estimated by dissipation and iterative bulk aerodynamic methods during gale, Geophys. Res. Lett., 15, 401–404, 1988.; Amyot, M., Mierle, G., Lean, D. R. S., and Mcqueen, D. J.: Sunlight-induced formation of dissolved gaseous mercury in lake waters. Environ. Sci. Technol., 28, 2366–2371, 1994.; Amyot, M., Gill, G. A., and Morel, F. M. M.: Production and loss of dissolved gaseous mercury in coas...

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The Effect of Low Solublility Organic Acids on the Hygroscopicity ...

By: F. Castaño; M. N. Sánchez; E. Méndez; L. Miñambres; F. J. Basterretxea

Description: Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, Campus de Leioa, B. Sarriena, s/n, Leioa 48940, Spain. In order to accurately assess the influence of fatty acids on the hygroscopic and other physicochemical properties of sea salt aerosols, hexanoic, octanoic or lauric acid together with sodium halide salts (NaCl, NaBr and NaI) have been chosen to be performed in this study. The hygroscopic prop...

Andreae, M. and Rosenfeld, D.: Aerosol–cloud–precipitation interactions. Part 1. The nature and sources of cloud-active aerosols, Earth-Sci. Rev., 89, 13–41, 2008.; Andrews, E. and Larson, S. M.: Effect of surfactant layers on the size changes of aerosol-particles as a function of relative-humidity, Environ. Sci. Technol., 27, 857–865, 1993.; Baker, A. R.: Marine aerosol iodine chemistry: the importance of soluble organic iodine, Environ. Chem., 2, 295–298, 2005.; Bohren...

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