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Sociolinguistics


It is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and the effects of language use on society. Sociolinguistics differs from sociology of language in that the focus of sociolinguistics is the effect of the society on the language, while the latter's focus is on the language's effect on the society. Sociolinguistics overlaps to a considerable degree with pragmatics. It is historically closely related to linguistic anthropology and the distinction between the two fields has even been questioned recently.

 
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Observing Crosswind Over Urban Terrain Using Scintillometer and Do...

By: A. Nordbo; C. R. Wood; O. K. Hartogensis; E. J. O'Connor; D. Van Dinther

Description: Meteorology and Air Quality Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands. In this study, the crosswind (wind component perpendicular to a path, U) is measured by a scintillometer and estimated with Doppler lidar above the urban environment of Helsinki, Finland, for 15 days. The scintillometer allows acquisition of a path-averaged value of U (...

Andreas, E. L.: Obtaining Surface Momentum and Sensible Heat Fluxes from Crosswind Scintillometers, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 17, 3–16, 2000.; Bornstein, R. D. and Johnson, D. S.: Urban–rural wind velocity differences, Atmos. Environ., 11, 597–604, 1977.; Briggs, B. H., Phillips, G. J., and Shinn, D. H.: The Analysis of Observations on Spaced Receivers of the Fading of Radio Signals, Proc. Phys. Soc. B, 63, 106–121, 1950.; Clifford, S. F.: Temporal-frequency spectra for...

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Towards a Synthesis of Substorm Electrodynamics: Hf Radar and Auro...

By: J. C. Devlin; M. L. Parkinson; T. K. Yeoman; M. Lester; P. L. Dyson; A. Grocott; H. U. Frey

Description: Department of Physics {&} Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK. At 08:35 UT on 21 November 2004, the onset of an interval of substorm activity was captured in the southern hemisphere by the Far UltraViolet (FUV) instrument on board the IMAGE spacecraft. This was accompanied by the onset of Pi2 activity and subsequent magnetic bays, evident in ground magnetic data from both hemispheres. Further intensifications were then observed in ...

Akasofu,~S.-I.: The dynamical morphology of the auroral polaris, J Geophys. Res., 68, 1667–1672, 1963.; Akasofu,~S.-I.: The development of the auroral substorm, Planet. Space Sci., 12, 273–282, 1964.; Akasofu,~S.-I.: Polar and magnetospheric substorms, Dordrecht: Reidel, 1968.; Akasofu, ~S I.: Physics of magnetospheric substorms, Dordrecht: Reidel, 1977.; Akasofu,~S.-I., Chapman,~S., and Meng,~C.-I.: The polar electrojet, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 27, 1275–1305, 1965.; Akas...

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Access of Solar Wind Electrons Into the Martian Magnetosphere : Vo...

By: R. Lundin; E. Roussos; J. Woch; A. Coates; J. D. Winningham; S. Barabash; F. Leblanc; M. Fraenz; E. M. Dubinin; R. A. Frahm

Description: Max-Planck-Institute für Sonnensystemforschung, Lindau, Germany. Electrons with energy of ~40–80 eV measured by the instrument ASPERA-3 on Mars Express and MAG-ER onboard Mars Global Surveyor are used to trace an access of solar wind electrons into the Martian magnetosphere. Crustal magnetic fields create an additional protection from solar wind plasma on the dayside of the Southern Hemisphere by shifting the boundary of the induced magnetosphere (th...

Acuña, M. H., Connerney, J. E. P., Wasilewski, P., et al.: The Mars Observer Magnetic Fields Investigation, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 7799–7814, 1992.; Acuña, M. H., Connerney, J., Wasilewski, P., et al.: Magnetic field and plasma observations at Mars: initial results of the Mars Global Surveyor MAG/ER experiment, Science, 279, 790–793, 1998.; Barabash, S., Lundin, R., Andersson, H., et al.: The analyzer of space plasma and energetic atoms (ASPERA-3) for the Mars Express mis...

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The Modulation of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves by Pc 5 Ulf ...

By: C. L. Waters; T. M. Loto'Aniu; B. J. Fraser

Description: Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA. The modulation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves by longer-period ULF waves has been proposed as a method for producing pearl structured Pc 1–2 EMIC waves. This study examines frequency and phase relationship between Pc 1 EMIC wavepacket envelopes and simultaneously occurring Pc 5 ULF waves using magnetic data measured by the CRRES spacecra...

Anderson, R R., Gurnett, D A., and Odem, D L.: CRRES plasma wave experiment, J. Spacecraft and Rockets, 29, 570–573, 1992.; Barfield, J N. and McPherron, R L.: Investigation of interaction between Pc1 and 2 and Pc5 micropulsations at the synchronous orbit during magnetic storm, J. Geophys. Res., 77, 4707–4719, 1972.; Bossen, M., McPherron, R L., and Russell, C T.: A statistical study of Pc1 magnetic pulsations at synchronous orbit, J. Geophys. Res., 81, 6083–6091, 1976.;...

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Pre-storm NmF2 Enhancements at Middle Latitudes: Delusion or Reali...

By: L. Perrone; A. V. Mikhailov

Description: Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Troitsk, Moscow Region 142190, Russia. A critical analysis of recent publications devoted to the NmF2 pre-storm enhancements is performed. There are no convincing arguments that the observed cases of NmF2 enhancements at middle and sub-auroral latitudes bear a relation to the following magnetic storms. In all cases considered the NmF2 pre-storm enhancements we...

Andrews, M. K. and Thomas, J. O.: Electron density distribution above the winter pole, Nature, 5577, 223–227, 1969.; Bauske, R. and Prölss, G. W.: Modeling the ionospheric response to traveling atmospheric disturbances, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 14555–14562, 1997.; Belehaki, A. and Tsagouri, I.: On the occurrence of storm-induced nighttime ionization enhancements at ionospheric middle latitudes, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 1209, doi:10.1029/2001JA005029, 2002.; Blagoveschensky, ...

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Role of Gravity Wavelike Seed Perturbations on the Triggering of E...

By: Tarun Kumar Pant; C. Vineeth; R. Sridharan; Sudha Ravindran; V. Sreeja

Description: Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum, 695022, India. First observational evidence, from the Indian longitudes, for the presence of gravity wavelike perturbations with periods of 20–30 min, acting as probable seeds for Equatorial Spread F (ESF) irregularities is described. The study is based on the daytime optical measurements of the mesopause temperature and the intensity of the thermospheric O(1D) 630.0 nm daygl...

Sekar, R. and Raghavarao, R.: Role of vertical winds on the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities of the night time equatorial ionosphere, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 49, 981–985, 1987.; Sekar, R. and Raghavarao, R.: A case study on the evolution of equatorial spread-F by a nonlinear numerical model using the results from a set of coordinated measurements, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 59, 343–350, 1997.; Sekar, R., Chakrabarty, D., Sarkhel, S., Patra, A. K., Devasia, C. V., and Kelley, M. ...

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Observational Evidence for the Plausible Linkage of Equatorial Ele...

By: Tarun Kumar Pant; Sudha Ravindran; C. V. Devasia; V. Sreeja

Description: Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum 695022, India. The paper is based on a detailed observational study of the Equatorial Spread F (ESF) events on geomagnetically quiet (Ap≤20) days of the solar maximum (2001), moderate (2004) and minimum (2006) years using the ionograms and magnetograms from the magnetic equatorial location of Trivandrum (8.5° N; 77° E; dip lat ~0.5° N) in India. The study brings out som...

Aarons, J.: The longitudinal morphology of Equatorial F-layer irregularities relevant to their occurrence, Space Sci. Rev., 63, 209–243, 1993.; Abdu, M. A., Ramkumar, T. K., Batista, I. S., Brum, C. G. M., Takahasi, H., Reinisch, B. W., and Sobral, J. H. A.: Planetary wave signatures in the equatorial atmosphere-ionosphere system, and mesosphere- E- and F-region coupling, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 68, 509–522, 2006.; Abdu, M. A., Sobral, J. H. A., and Batista, I. S.: Equato...

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The Statistical Properties of Spread F Observed at Hainan Station ...

By: X. Wang; O. M. Pirog; S. P. Shang; J. K. Shi; G. J. Wang; G. Zherebtsov

Description: State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China. The temporal variations of the low latitude nighttime spread F (SF) observed by DPS-4 digisonde at low latitude Hainan station (geog. 19.5° N, 109.1° E, dip lat. 9.5° N) during the declining solar cycle 23 from March 2002 to February 2008 are studied. The spread F measured by the digisonde were classified into four ty...

Aarons, J.: The longitudinal morphology of equatorial F layer irregularities relevant to their occurrence, Space Sci. Rev., 63, 209–243, 1993.; Abdu, M. A., Bittencourt, J. A., and Batista, I. S.: Magnetic declination control of the equatorial F-region dynamo electric field development and spread-F, J. Geophys. Res., 86, 11443–11446, 1981.; Abdu, M. A., Medeiros, R. T. , Sobral, J. H. A., and Bittencourt, J. A.: Spread F plasma vertical rise velocities determined from sp...

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A Study of L-dependent Pc3 Pulsations Observed by Low Earth Orbiti...

By: D. C. Ndiitwani; P. R. Sutcliffe

Description: Hermanus Magnetic Observatory, P.O. Box 32, Hermanus, 7200, South Africa. Field line resonances (FLR) driven by compressional waves are an important mechanism for the generation of ULF geomagnetic pulsations observed at all latitudes during local daytime. References to observations of toroidal standing Alfvén mode oscillations with clearly L-dependent frequencies from spacecraft in the outer magnetosphere for L>3 are limited in the literature. Su...

Chen, L. and Hasegawa, A.: A theory of long-period magnetic pulsations, I: Steady state excitation of field line resonances, J. Geophys. Res., 79, 1024–1032, 1974.; Baransky, L. N., Borovkov, J. E., Gokhberg, M. B., Krylov, S. M., and Troitskaya, V. A.: High resolution method of direct measurement of the magnetic field line's eigenfrequencies, Planet. Space Sci., 33, 1369–1374, 1985.; Baransky, L. N., Belokris, S. P., Borovkov, Y. E., Gokhberg, M. B., Federov, E. N., and...

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Locomotion and Postural Behaviour : Volume 5, Issue 1 (30/05/2011)

By: M. Schmidt

Description: Institut für Spezielle Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Erbertstr. 1, 07743 Jena, Germany. The purpose of this article is to provide a survey of the diversity of primate locomotor behaviour for people who are involved in research using laboratory primates. The main locomotor modes displayed by primates are introduced with reference to some general morphological adaptations. The relationships between locomotor behaviou...

Arms A, Voges D, Fischer MS, Preuschoft H (2002) Arboreal locomotion in small New-World monkeys. Z Morph Anthropol 83:243–263; Arnason U, Gullberg A, Janke A (1998) Molecular timing of primate divergences as estimated by two nonprimate calibration points. J Mol Evol 47:718–727; Ashton EH, Oxnard CE (1964) Locomotor patterns in primates. Proc Zool Soc Lond 142:1–28; Baker KC, Weed JL, Crockett CM, Bloomsmith MA (2006) Survey of environmental enhancement programs for labor...

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Short-term Changes in the Mesozooplankton Community and Copepod Gu...

By: A. Yamaguchi; J. Inoue; S. Nishino; T. Kikuchi; K. Matsuno

Description: Arctic Environment Research Center, National Institute of Polar Research, 10-3 Midori-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8518, Japan. To evaluate the effect of atmospheric turbulence on a marine ecosystem, high-frequency samplings (two to four times per day) of a mesozooplankton community and the gut pigment of dominant copepods were performed at a fixed station in the Chukchi Sea from 10 to 25 September 2013. During the study period, a strong wind event (SWE) wa...

Ashjian, C. J., Campbell, R. G., Welch, H. E., Butler, M., and Keuren, D. V.: Annual cycle in abundance, distribution, and size in relation to hydrography of important copepod species in the western Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res. I, 50, 1235–1261, 2003.; Ashjian, C. J., Braund, S. R., Campbell, R. G., George, J. C. C., Kruse, J., Maslowski, W., Moore, S. E., Nicolson, C. R., Okkonen, S. R., Sherr, B. F., Sherr, E. B., and Spitz, Y. H.: Climate variability, oceanography, bow...

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A Bulk Parametrization of Melting Snowflakes with Explicit Liquid...

By: A. Seifert; H. Wernli; C. Frick

Description: Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland. A new snow melting parametrization is presented for the non-hydrostatic limited-area COSMO (consortium for small-scale modelling) model. In contrast to the standard cloud microphysics of the COSMO model, which instantaneously transfers the meltwater from the snow to the rain category, the new scheme explicitly considers the liquid water fraction of the melting snowflakes. These semi...

Austin, P. M. and Bemis, A. C.: A quantitative study of the bright band in radar precipitation echoes, J. Meteor., 7, 145–151, 1950.; Barthazy, E., Waldvogel, A., Urban, U., and Randeu, W.: Melt distances of snowflakes, Preprints, Conf. on Cloud Physics, Amer. Met. Soc., 140–141, 1998.; Berry, E. X. and Reinhardt, R. L.: An analysis of cloud drop growth by collection: P}art I. {Double distributions, J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 1814–1824, 1974.; Bocchieri, J. R.: The objective us...

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Infiltrative Instability Near Topography with Implication for the ...

By: P. Genthon; A. Ormond

Description: Paléotropique, IRD, BP A5 98848 Nouméa, New Caledonia. We present here numerical modeling of infiltration instability near a topographic edge of a water-saturated porous slice by analogy with a limestone formation devoid of initial heterogeneities such as fractures faults or joints and limited by a vertical cliff. In our runs a first dissolution finger develops near the cliff edge, and ends to intersect it above its mid height. Additional fingers develo...

Bekri, S., Thovert, J. F., and Adler, P. M.: Dissolution of porous media, Chem. Eng. Sci., 50, 2765–2791, 1995.; Dreybrodt, W.: Principles of early development of karst conduits under natural and man-made condition revealed by mathematical analysis of numerical models, Water Resour. Res., 32, 2923–2935, 1996.; Daccord, G. and Lenormand, R.: Fractal patterns from chemical dissolution, Nature, 325, 41–43, 1987.; Ford, D. C. and Williams, P. W.: Karst geomorphology and hydr...

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Hydropedological Insights when Considering Catchment Classificatio...

By: M. P. W. Sonneveld; P. Droogers; C. J. Ritsema; S. Kauffman; W. W. Immerzeel; J. E. Hunink; J. Bouma

Description: em.Professor of soil science, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. Soil classification systems are analysed to explore the potential of developing classification systems for catchments. Soil classifications are useful to create systematic order in the overwhelming quantity of different soils in the world and to extrapolate data available for a given soil type to soils elsewhere with identical classifications. This principle also applies to catchments...

Stolte, J., van Venrooij, B., Zhang, G., Trouwborst, K. O., Liu, G., Ritsema, C. J., and Hessel, R.: Land-use induced spatial heterogeneity of soil hydraulic properties on the Loess Plateau in China, Catena, 54, 59–76, 2003.; Van Engelen, V. W. P, Batjes, N. H, Dijkshoorn, K., and Huting, J.: Harmonized Global Soil Resources Database (Final Report), Report 2005/06, ISRIC – World Soil Information, Wageningen, available at: www.isric.org, 2005.; v...

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Variability of Flow Discharge in Lateral Inflow-dominated Stream C...

By: H.-d. Yeh; C.-m. Chang

Description: Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan. The influence of the temporal changes in lateral inflow rate on the discharge variability in stream channels is explored through the analysis of the diffusion wave equation (i.e. the linearized Saint-Venant equation). To account for variability and uncertainty, the lateral inflow rate is regarded as a temporal random function. On the basis of the spectral representa...

Bewket, W. and Lal, R.: Recent spatiotemporal temperature and rainfall variability and trends over the Upper Blue Nile River Basin, Ethiopia, Int. J. Climatol., 34, 2278–2292, 2014.; Capsoni, C., Fedi, F., Magistroni, C., Paraboni, A., and Pawlina, A.: Data and theory for a new model of the horizontal structure of rain cells for propagation applications, Radio Sci., 22, 395–404, 1987.; Daluz Viera, J. H.: Conditions governing the use of approximations for the Saint-Venan...

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Temporal and Spatial Changes of Water Quality and Management Strat...

By: W. H. Zeng; S. R. Wang; Z. K. Ni; T. Zhang

Description: State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China. Temporal and spatial changes to the water quality of Dianchi Lake in Southwest China were investigated using monthly monitoring data from 2005 to 2012. Based on the analysis of total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations, it was determined that, in Caohai Lake, the annua...

Choudhary, P., Routh, J., and Chakrapani, G. J.: Organic geochemical record of increased productivity in Lake Naukuchiyatal, Kumaun Himalayas, India, Environ. Earth Sci., 60, 837–843, 2010.; Ding, Y., and Lai, J.: The experience and inspiration of Dianchi Lake protection – analysis of urban water environment governance in China, J. Southw. Univ. National., 32, 111–115, 2011.; Gao, L., Yang, H., Zhou, J. M., and Lü, J. J.: Lake sediments from Dianchi Lake: a phosphorus si...

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Technical Note: Variability of Flow Discharge in Lateral Inflow-do...

By: C.-m. Chang; H.-d. Yeh

Description: Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan. The influence of the temporal changes in lateral inflow rate on the discharge variability in stream channels is explored through the analysis of diffusion wave equation (the linearized St. Venant equations). To account for variability and uncertainty, the lateral inflow rate is regarded as a temporal random function. Based on the spectral representation theory,...

Dooge, J. C. I. and Harley, B. M.: Linear routing in uniform channels, in: Proc. Int. Hydrol. Symp., Fort Collins, 57–63, 1967.; Daluz Viera, J. H.: Conditions governing the use of approximations for the Saint-Venant equations for shallow water flow, J. Hydrol., 60, 43–58, 1983.; De Michele, C. and Bernardara, P.: Spectral analysis and modeling of space–time rainfall fields, Atmos. Res., 77, 124–136, 2005.; Capsoni, C., Fedi, F., Magistroni, C., Paraboni, A., and Pawlina...

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Infiltrative Instability Near Topography with Implication for the ...

By: P. Genthon; A. Ormond

Description: Paléotropique, IRD, BP A5 98848 Nouméa, New Caledonia. We present here numerical modeling of infiltration instability near a topographic edge of a water-saturated porous slice by analogy with a limestone formation devoid of initial heterogeneities such as fractures faults or joints and limited by a vertical cliff. In our runs a first dissolution finger develops near the cliff edge, and ends to intersect it above its mid height. Additional fingers develo...

Hackbusch, W.: Multi-grid methods and applications, Springer Verlag, New York, 377 pp., 1985.; Hirt, C. W. and Nichols, B. D.: Volume of fluid (VOF) method for the dynamics of free boundaries, J. Comput. Phys., 39, 201–225, 1981.; Bekri, S., Thovert, J. F., and Adler, P. M.: Dissolution of porous media, Chem. Eng. Sci., 50, 2765–2791, 1995.; Dreybrodt, W.: Principles of early development of karst conduits under natural and man-made condition revealed by mathematical anal...

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Hydropedological Insights when Considering Catchment Classificatio...

By: M. P. W. Sonneveld; W. W. Immerzeel; J. Bouma; P. Droogers; J. E. Hunink; C. J. Ritsema; S. Kauffman

Description: em.Professor of soil science, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. Soil classification systems are analysed in relation to the functioning and characterisation of catchments. Soil classifications are useful to create systematic order in the overwhelming quantity of different soils in the world and to extrapolate data available for a given soil type to soils elsewhere with identical classifications. However, such classifications are based on permanent...

Bastiaanssen, W. G. M., Noordman, E. J. M., Pelgrum, H., Davids, G., and Allen, R. G.: SEBAL for spatially distributed ET under actual management and growing conditions, J. Irrig. Drain. E.-ASCE, 131, 85–93, 2005.; Beven, K.: Searching for the Holy Grail of scientific hydrology: $Q_t$ = (S, R, $\Delta t$)A as closure, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 10, 609–618, doi:10.5194/hess-10-609-2006, 2006.; Booltink, ...

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Danish Auroral Science History : Volume 2, Issue 1 (04/01/2011)

By: P. Stauning

Description: Senior Scientist (Emeritus) at the Danish Meteorological Institute, Lyngbyvej 100, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. Danish auroral science history begins with the early auroral observations made by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe during the years from 1582 to 1601 preceding the Maunder minimum in solar activity. Included are also the brilliant observations made by another astronomer, Ole Rømer, from Copenhagen in 1707, as well as the early auroral observation...

Angot, A.: Les aurores polaire, Félix Alcan, Paris, 1895.; Arrhenius, S.: Ueber die Ursache der Nordlichter, Kungl. Vetenskaps-Akademien, 5, 545–580, 1900.; Axford, W. I. and Hines, C. O.: A unifying theory of high-latitude geophysical phenomena and geomagnetic storms, Cann. J. Phys., 39, p. 1433, 1961.; Amdrup, G. C.: Observations astronomiques, meteorologiques et magnetiques de Tasiusak dans le district d'Angmagssalik 1898–99, G.E.C.Gad, Copenhague, 1904.; Bloch, F. P....

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