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International Relations


International Relations (IR) (occasionally referred to as International Studies (IS)) is the study of relationships between countries, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and multinational corporations (MNCs). It is both an academic and public policy field, and can be either positive or normative as it both seeks to analyze as well as formulate the foreign policy of particular states. It is often considered a branch of political science (especially after 1988 UNESCO nomenclature), but an important sector of academia prefer to treat it as an interdisciplinary field of study.

 
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Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1991; Volume 69, Numbe...

By: D. Forste

Medical Reference Publication

Since the discoveries of Jenner and Pasteur in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the medical sciences have made enormous progress in the control of infectious diseases. One measure of that progress was the eradication of smallpox. which was announced by WHO on 8 May 1980. The eradication of smallpox was a tremendous victory for mankind. It was an indication that scientific progress, when combined with international cooperation, has placed within our reach the poss...

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World Health Organization : Year 1994 ; World Health Organization,...

By: N. Giesbrecht

Medical Reference Publication

INTRODUCTION Adolescence, the second decade of life, is a crucial and dynamic time in the lives of all young people. It is a time when young pcople develop thcir capacity for empathy with others, for abstract thinking, and for looking ahcad; a timc when the closc and dcpcndcnt relationships with parcnts and older family members of childhood begin to give way to more intense relationships with peers and adults outside the family; and it is a time when physically, adolcscc...

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World Health Organization : Year 1995 ; World Health Organization ...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Women's health is not a commodity, it is a right. Worldwide, however, the health security of women is at risk. Health security embraces all aspects of women's lives, including the right to freedom of choice and personal security, the right to adequate and sufficient food, the right to work in safe environments and the right of access to education, information, and decent housing. After all, what hope does a woman have who has been mutilated against her will or pulled out...

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World Health Organization : Year 1999 ; World Health Organization ...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

1. INTRODUCTION The Centre for Environmental Health Activities (CEHA) of the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean (WHOEMRO) planned and implemented the Regional Workshop on Water Conservation and Reuse: Important Elements of Water Resources Management Strategies. The workshop agenda and programme are presented in Annex 1 and 2. The workshop was attended by 16 participants from 15 countries. A list of participants is given in Annex 3. Te...

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World Health Organization : Year 1997 ; World Health Organization,...

By: P. E. N. Sikosana, Dr.

Medical Reference Publication

SYNOPSIS AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Countries across Africa are engaged in redefining their health policies and restructuring institutions in response to the challenges posed by an economic decline, dramatic increase in poverty, and serious erosion of the human development achievements over the past two decades. While Health For All (HFA) through Primary Health Care (PHC) remains the main goal of health development in Africa, health sector reform is urgently needed in order to...

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