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International Relations


International Relations (IR) (occasionally referred to as International Studies (IS)) is the study of relationships between countries, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and multinational corporations (MNCs). It is both an academic and public policy field, and can be either positive or normative as it both seeks to analyze as well as formulate the foreign policy of particular states. It is often considered a branch of political science (especially after 1988 UNESCO nomenclature), but an important sector of academia prefer to treat it as an interdisciplinary field of study.

 
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Report of the Minister of Foreign Affairs

By: Hawaii Department of Foreign Affairs
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United Nations Monetary Fenational Conference

By: United Nations

Osmania University ; Digital Library of India

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Proceedings of the Conference on International Relations, Held at ...

By: Conference on Interational Relations (1915; Cornell University); World Peace Foundation

Includes bibliography and index ; [V.1] Text. -- [v.2] Atlas

Plankton Expedition (1889) ; Cephalopoda ; Oegopsida

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Reports and Studies No. 30 Imo/Fao/Unesco/Wmo/Who/Iaea/Un/Unep Joi...

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Nutrition Reference Publication

Excerpt: This document is the Report of the GESAMP Working Group on the Methodologies and Guidelines for the Assessment of the Impact of Pollutants on the Marine Environment, which met from 26 to 30 September 1983 in Rome, Italy, from 29 October to 9 November 1984 in Bangkok, Thailand, and from 23 to 27 September 1985 in Rome, Italy. The following members participated in the preparation of the Report: Yves Adam, J. Michael Bewers, Davide Calamari, Lisandro Chuecas, Anton...

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As Requested by the Minister for Agriculture of the Palestinian Au...

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Nutrition Reference Publication

Excerpt: As requested by the Minister for Agriculture of the Palestinian Authority (PA), FAO in cooperation with the World Food Programme (WFP) and the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) undertook an assessment of the food and nutrition situation in the West Bank and Gaza Strip (WBGS) February through July 2003. The purpose was to assist the PA and relevant stakeholders to better design, target and implement future development programmes and relief interventi...

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Headquarters of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the Unite...

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Nutrition Reference Publication

Excerpt: A logical approach to investigate possible allergenicity of a food is by starting out with in vitro investigations based on binding of specific IgE to a solid phase. A negative outcome in these assays prompts further in vitro invrestigation e.g. using immunoblotting techniques folowed by in vivo testing of suitable patients by Skin Prick Testing. Negative outcome here prompts Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Food Challenges (DBPCFC) constituting the ultimate dia...

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Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (Fao) Impr...

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Nutrition Reference Publication

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Charter of the United Nations and Statute of the International Cou...

By: United Nations; Hague. Interational Court of Justice. Statute. 1968
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Charter of the United Nations and Statute of the International Cou...

By: United Nations; Hague. Interational Court of Justice. Statute. 1968
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Charter of the United Nations and Statute of the International Cou...

By: United Nations; Hague. International Court of Justice. Statute. 1968
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No, No2, Nox and So2 Sampling Protocol Using the Ogawa Sampler

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: General Information 1. Water, in all cases, shall mean water meeting ASTM Type I specifications. (Equal to Milli-Q by Millipore). Use Reagent grade chemicals for all applications. 2. Wash, in all cases, shall mean cleaning thoroughly with water meeting ASTM Type I specifications.

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Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Cou...

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: 1. INTRODUCTION: Protection of bathing waters has been one of the first, and one of the most successful, elements of European Water Policy. The 1976 Bathing Water Directive1 has not only set binding standards for bathing waters throughout the European Union, but also resulted in an unprecedented public awareness, as bathing water quality is perceived by the citizens as directly touching upon their daily life. The annual Bathing Water Report published by the Comm...

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Relative Quantitation of Gene Expression

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Introduction: Amplification of an endogenous control may be performed to standardize the amount of sample RNA or DNA added to a reaction. For the quantitation of gene expression, researchers have used  -actin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), or other RNAs as this endogenous control.

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More Evidence of Mercury Effects in Children

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: In research published last summer, scientists revealed that prenatal exposure to methylmercury, an organic form of mercury that accumulates in animal tissues, may affect the blood pressure and ability to respond to sensory stimuli in exposed children later in life. The team is now also confirming findings of mercury-related neurodevelopmental effects among the Faroese subjects by studying a cohort of Madeiran children.

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The Price of Cigarettes

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: In addition to the waste generated by cigarette consumers, the tobacco manufacturing process itself produces liquid and solid wastes. Novotny and Zhaos research showed that in 1995 worldwide tobacco manufacturing produced 2.26 billion kilograms of solid waste and 209 million kilograms of chemical waste. Ironically, the trend toward ?healthier? low-nicotine cigarettes spawns nicotine as a waste product. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) includes nico...

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Medicinal Herbs : Ntp Extracts the Facts

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The National Toxicology Program (NTP) has announced that it will design and initiate studies to identify and characterize possible adverse health effects that may be associated with prolonged use or higher doses of some of the most popular medicinal herbs, including Ginkgo biloba, Echinacea angustifolia, and Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng). The NTP studies a large variety of substances to which the population may be exposed in the environment, occupationa...

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Environmental Genome Project Develops a New Bioinformatics Tool

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The NIEHS Environmental Genome Project is founded on the sound scientific concept that an individuals genetic makeup is a major factor in human disease resulting from exposure to environmental agents. The project is a long-term effort to characterize specific genetic variations, or polymorphisms, that contribute to either resistance or susceptibility to environmentally induced diseases.

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Breaching the Placenta Fast Fetal Absorption of a Common Compound

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Most maternally administered chemicals have the potential to cross the placental barrier, and the question is not whether a chemical crosses the placenta, but the rate at which it does so. In this issue, Osamu Takahashi and Shinshi Oishi of the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Laboratory of Public Health present their findings that the placenta fails to act as a barrier to a potentially toxic compound, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane, also known as bisphenol A or BPA...

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Niehs Leads Research Efforts Addressing Domestic Health Disparities

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The NIEHS has emerged with a significant leadership role in the health disparities arena and has undertaken a number of activities to help eliminate health disparities influenced by the social and physical milieux.

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Spheres of Influence the Nexttarget Ofbioterrorism

By: United Nations

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: When someone cultivates pathogenic bacteria, fungi, viruses, or certain chemical compounds specifically to kill people or transmit disease, thats biological warfare. A lesserknown form of biological warfare targets major food crops instead of people, and carries the potential to wreak environmental health havoc. After health care, agriculture has been the largest market to benefit from genomic research and biotechnology. But while the ability to diagnose plant d...

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