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Aviation accidents and incidents

A pilot ejects from his F-16 less than a second before it impacts the ground.

An aviation accident is defined by the Convention on International Civil Aviation Annex 13 as an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft, which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until all such persons have disembarked, where a person is fatally or seriously injured, the aircraft sustains damage or structural failure or the aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible.[1] If the accident where the aircraft is destroyed or severely damaged so that it must be written off, it is further defined as a hull loss accident.[2]

The first fatal aviation accident was the crash of a Rozière balloon near Wimereux, France, on June 15, 1785, killing its inventor Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier as well as the other occupant, Pierre Romain.[3] The first involving a powered aircraft was the crash of a Wright Model A aircraft at Fort Myer, Virginia, USA, on September 17, 1908, injuring its co-inventor and pilot, Orville Wright, and killing the passenger, Signal Corps Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge.[4]


  • Major disasters 1
    • Tenerife Disaster 1.1
    • JAL Flight 123 1.2
    • Other crashes with high (250+) death tolls 1.3
  • Safety 2
  • ASRS 3
  • Statistics 4
    • Aircraft Crashes Record Office (ACRO) 4.1
    • Annual Aviation Safety Review (EASA) 4.2
  • Investigation 5
    • Australia 5.1
    • Brazil 5.2
    • Canada 5.3
    • France 5.4
    • Germany 5.5
    • Hong Kong 5.6
    • India 5.7
    • Italy 5.8
    • Netherlands 5.9
    • New Zealand 5.10
    • Russia 5.11
    • Taiwan 5.12
    • United Kingdom 5.13
    • United States 5.14
  • Retirement of flight numbers 6
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • Bibliography 9
  • Further reading 10
  • External links 11

Major disasters

Tenerife Disaster

583: The Tenerife disaster, which happened on March 27, 1977, remains the accident with the highest number of airliner passenger fatalities. 583 people died when a KLM Boeing 747 attempted to take off without clearance, and collided with a taxiing Pan Am 747 at Los Rodeos Airport on the Canary Island of Tenerife, Spain. There were no survivors from the KLM aircraft; 61 of the 396 passengers and crew on the Pan Am aircraft survived. Pilot error was the primary cause. Owing to a communication misunderstanding, the KLM captain thought he had clearance for takeoff.[5][6] Another cause was dense fog, meaning the KLM flight crew was unable to see the Pan Am aircraft on the runway until immediately prior to the collision.[7] The accident had a lasting influence on the industry, particularly in the area of communication. An increased emphasis was placed on using standardized phraseology in air traffic control (ATC) communication by both controllers and pilots alike, thereby reducing the chance for misunderstandings. As part of these changes, the word "takeoff" was removed from general usage, and is only spoken by ATC when actually clearing an aircraft to take off.[8]

JAL Flight 123

520: The crash of Japan Airlines Flight 123 on August 12, 1985 is the single-aircraft disaster with the highest number of fatalities:[9] 520 died on board a Boeing 747. The aircraft suffered an explosive decompression from an incorrectly repaired aft pressure bulkhead, which failed in mid flight, destroying most of its vertical stabilizer and severing all of the hydraulic lines, making the 747 virtually uncontrollable.[10] Pilots were able to keep the plane flying for 32 minutes after the mechanical failure before crashing into a mountain. Remarkably, several people survived, but by the time the Japanese rescue teams arrived at the crash site, all but four had succumbed to their injuries.

Other crashes with high (250+) death tolls

349: On November 12, 1996, the world's deadliest[11] mid-air collision was the 1996 Charkhi Dadri mid-air collision involving Saudia Flight 763 and Air Kazakhstan Flight 1907 over Haryana, India. The collision was mainly the result of the Kazakh pilot flying lower than the assigned clearance altitude. All 349 passengers and crew on board both aircraft died.[12] The Ramesh Chandra Lahoti Commission, empowered to study the causes, recommended the creation of "air corridors" to prevent aircraft from flying in opposite directions at the same altitude.[13] The Civil Aviation Authorities in India made it mandatory for all aircraft flying in and out of India to be equipped with a Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS), setting a worldwide precedent for mandatory use of TCAS.

346: On March 3, 1974, Turkish Airlines Flight 981, a McDonnell Douglas DC-10, crashed in a forest northeast of Paris, France. The London-bound plane crashed shortly after taking off from Orly airport; all 346 people on board died. It was later determined that the cargo door detached, which caused an explosive decompression; this caused the floor just above to collapse. The collapsed floor severed the control cables, which left the pilots without control of the elevators, the rudder and No. 2 engine.[14] The plane entered a steep dive and crashed. It was the deadliest plane crash of all time until the Tenerife disaster in 1977.[5]

329: On June 23, 1985, Air India Flight 182 Boeing 747-237B crashed off the southwest coast of Ireland when a bomb exploded in the cargo hold. All 307 passengers and 22 crew members died.[15] One passenger had checked in as "M. Singh". Singh did not board the flight, however, his suitcase containing the bomb was loaded onto the plane. "Mr Singh" was never identified and captured. It was later determined Sikh extremists were behind the bombing as a retaliation for the Indian government's attack on the Golden Temple in the city of Amritsar, which is very important for the Sikhs. This was, at the time, the deadliest terrorist attack involving an airplane.[16]

301: On August 19, 1980, Saudi Arabian Airlines Flight 163, a Lockheed L-1011 became the world's deadliest aviation accident that did not involve a physical crash. The crew performed a successful emergency landing after a fire broke out in the aft C-3 baggage compartment, which eventually burned through the ceiling of that compartment and then expanded into the aft passenger cabin. While the crew managed to land the plane safely, the Captain did not stop immediately and order an evacuation. Instead, he took the time to taxi off the runway and by then, everyone had become unconscious and no one opened any doors to begin the evacuation. All 301 passengers and crew died in the fire before rescue ground crews could open any door.[17]

298: On July 17, 2014, Malaysia Airlines Flight 17, a Boeing 777-200ER, flying from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur with 298 people on board was shot down in an area of Eastern Ukraine near the Ukraine/Russian border. No survivors have been reported following this incident. There were 283 passengers, including 3 infants, and 15 crew members on board MH17. The crew were all Malaysian, while the 283 passengers were of various nationalities, the majority of them from the Netherlands. According to a Dutch report, high-energy objects hit the plane in midair, causing it to break apart. This is also the deadliest accident involving a Boeing 777 after the disappearance of Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 which happened only four months before.[18]

290: On July 3, 1988, Iran Air Flight 655, an Iranian civilian airliner, was shot down by two surface-to-air missiles from the U.S. Navy's guided missile cruiser, USS Vincennes, over the Strait of Hormuz. All 290 passengers and crew aboard died.[19]

275: On February 19, 2003, an Iranian military Ilyushin Il-76 crashed in mountainous terrain near Kerman in Iran. The official report says bad weather brought the aircraft down; high winds and fog were present at the time of the crash.[20]

273: On May 25, 1979, American Airlines Flight 191, following improper maintenance and the loss of an engine, a McDonnell Douglas DC-10-10, lost control and crashed near O'Hare International Airport in Des Plaines, Illinois. The crash resulted in the deaths of all 271 passengers and crew on board, as well as two people on the ground. It remains the deadliest commercial aircraft accident in United States history,[21][22] and was also the country's deadliest aviation disaster until the September 11 attacks in 2001.

270: On December 21, 1988, Pan Am Flight 103, a Boeing 747–121 bound for New York-JFK from London-Heathrow with continued service to Detroit, was destroyed by a terrorist bomb over the town of Lockerbie, Scotland. All 243 passengers and 16 crew, and 11 people on the ground (all residents of Sherwood Crescent, Lockerbie), died,[23][24] making it the worst terrorist attack involving an aircraft in the UK. This remains the deadliest terrorist attack on British soil. Following the crash, the Federal Aviation Administration imposed new security measures on American airlines flying out of 103 airports in Western Europe and the Middle East.[25]

269: On September 1, 1983, a Soviet interceptor Sukhoi Su-15 shot down Korean Air Lines Flight 007, a Boeing 747-230B, after it flew into Soviet airspace; all 269 passengers and crew on board died.[26]

265: On November 12, 2001, American Airlines Flight 587, an Airbus A300, crashed in the Belle Harbor neighborhood of Queens, New York, just after departing John F. Kennedy International Airport bound for Las Américas International Airport, Santo Domingo. The first officer's overuse of the rudder in response to wake turbulence from a Japan Airlines 747 was cited as cause. All 260 people on board, as well as five people on the ground, died from the crash.[27][28] It is the second-deadliest aviation accident on U.S. soil, after American Airlines Flight 191.

264: On April 26, 1994, China Airlines Flight 140 was completing a routine flight and approach at Nagoya Airport, Japan, when the Airbus A300B4-622R's First Officer inadvertently pressed the Takeoff/Go-around button which raises the throttle position to the same as take offs and go-arounds. The action and the two pilots' reaction resulted in a crash that killed 264 (15 crew and 249 passengers) of the 271 people aboard.[29]

261: On July 11, 1991, Nigeria Airways Flight 2120, a Douglas DC-8-61 aircraft operated by Nationair Canada, crashed in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia after two tires ignited upon takeoff, leading to an in-flight fire. All 261 people died. It is the deadliest aviation accident involving a DC-8, and the largest aviation disaster involving a Canadian-registered aircraft.[30]

257: On November 28, 1979, Air New Zealand Flight 901, an Antarctic sightseeing flight, collided with Mount Erebus on Ross Island, Antarctica, killing all 237 passengers and 20 crew on board.[31][32] The flight crew had not been informed that the computer coordinates for the flight path of the McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30 had been changed the night before, directing the flight directly into Mount Erebus rather than the usual path down McMurdo Sound.[33]

256: On December 12, 1985, a Douglas DC-8, Arrow Air Flight 1285, carrying American military personnel on a charter flight home for Christmas, crashed in Newfoundland; all 248 passengers and 8 crew members died.[34] The Canadian Aviation Safety Board investigating the cause of the crash issued two different reports: The majority report cited ice on the wings as cause of the crash; the minority report suggests an explosion was the likely cause.


In over one hundred years of implementation, aviation safety has improved considerably. In modern times, two major manufacturers still produce heavy passenger aircraft for the civilian market: Boeing in the United States of America, and the European company Airbus. Both place huge emphasis on the use of aviation safety equipment, now a billion-dollar industry in its own right; for each, safety is a major selling point—realizing that a poor safety record in the aviation industry is a threat to corporate survival. Some major safety devices now required in commercial aircraft involve:

  • Evacuation slides — aid rapid passenger exit from an aircraft in an emergency situation.[35]
  • Advanced avionics – Computerized auto-recovery and alert systems.[36]
  • Turbine engines – durability and failure containment improvements.[37]
  • Landing gear – that can be lowered even after loss of power and hydraulics.[38]

Measured on a passenger-distance calculation, air travel is the safest form of transportation available: Figures mentioned are the ones shared by the air industry when quoting air safety statistics. A typical statement, e.g., by the BBC: "UK airline operations are among the safest anywhere. When compared to all other modes of transport, on a "fatality per mile basis", air transport is the safest — six times safer than traveling by car; twice as safe as rail."[39]

However, when measured by fatalities per person transported, buses are the safest form of transportation. The number of air travel fatalities per person is surpassed only by bicycles and motorcycles. This statistic is used by the insurance industry when calculating insurance rates for air travel.[40]

Per every billion kilometers traveled, trains have a fatality rate 12 times over air travel; by comparison, fatality rates for automobiles are 62 times greater than air travel. By contrast, for every billion journeys, buses are the safest form of transportation. By the last measure, air transportation is three times more dangerous than car transportation, and almost 30 times more dangerous than bus.[41]

After the crash of Gol Transportes Aéreos Flight 1907, Brazilian Air Force personnel recover the flight data recorder of the flight.

A 2007 study by Popular Mechanics found passengers sitting at the back of a plane are 40% more likely to survive a crash than those sitting in the front. Although this article quotes Boeing, the FAA and a website on aircraft safety, all claim there is no "safest" seat. The article studied 20 crashes, not taking into account the developments in safety after those accidents.[42] However, a flight data recorder is usually mounted in the aircraft's empennage (tail section), where it is more likely to survive a severe crash.

Over 95% of people in U.S. plane crashes, between 1983 and 2000, survived.[43]



  • Aviation Safety Network Established in 1996. The ASN Safety Database contains descriptions of over 12200 airliner, military and corporate jet aircraft accidents/incidents since 1943.
  • Bureau of Aircraft Accidents Archives Established in 2000. The B3A contains descriptions of over 22,000 airliner, military and corporate jet aircraft accidents since 1918.
  • National Transportation Safety Board Accident Database & Synopses
  • Aviation Statistics Statistical and geospatial analysis of general aviation accidents.

External links

  • S A Cullen MD FRCPath FRAeS. "Injuries in Fatal Aircraft Accidents" (Archive). NATO.

Further reading

  • USAF & NATO Report RTO-TR-015 AC/323/(HFM-015)/TP-1 (2001).
  • Accident the world
  • KLu Crash Archief; Ongevallenfoto's 1945 – 1965, 'Flash Aviation', 2003.
  • KLu Crash Archief 2; Ongevallenfoto's 1964 – 1974, 'Flash Aviation', 2004.
  • BLu Crash Archief; Ongevallenfoto's 1945 – 1965, 'Flash Aviation', 2004.


  1. ^ "International Investigation Standards". The Investigation Process Research Resource Site. October 11, 1994. Retrieved July 22, 2012. 
  2. ^ "Definitions of Key Terms Used by". January 23, 2009. Retrieved July 22, 2012. 
  3. ^ Marion Fulgence. "Part 2, Chapter 10: The Necrology of Aeronautics". Wonderful Balloon Ascents. Cassel Petter & Galpin.
  4. ^ "Wright Brothers – First Fatal Airplane Crash in 1908". Inventors. Retrieved July 22, 2012. 
  5. ^ a b Tonyleather. "The Deadliest Airplane Accidents in History". Retrieved May 7, 2012. 
  6. ^ Sebastien Freissinet. "The Tenerife crash-March 27th, 1977". Retrieved May 7, 2012. 
  7. ^ "ASN Accident Description". Aviation Safety Network. 
  8. ^ "The Tenerife Airport Disaster - the worst in aviation history". The Tenerife Information Centre. Retrieved October 29, 2014. 
  9. ^ Kilroy. "Special Report: Japan Airlines Flight 123". Retrieved May 7, 2012. 
  10. ^ AviationSafetyNetwork. "Accident description". Retrieved May 7, 2012. 
  11. ^ Klein. "Top 10 plane crashes in the world". Retrieved June 11, 2013. 
  12. ^ AviationSafetyNetwork. "Accident description". Retrieved May 7, 2012. 
  13. ^ IFR English. "The 1996 Charkhi Dadri mid-air collision...". Retrieved May 7, 2012. 
  14. ^ "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 19 November 2014. 
  15. ^ AviationSafetyNetwork. "Accident description". Retrieved May 7, 2012. 
  16. ^ Touchton. "Recent Major Bomb Blasts and Terror Attacks in India". Retrieved May 7, 2012. 
  17. ^ "Saudi Arabian Airlines flight 163 Accident Report" (PDF). Saudi Arabian Presidency of Civil Aviation. Retrieved June 2013.  (Archive)
  18. ^ Wall, Robert; Pasztor, Andy. "Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 Hit by High-Energy Objects, Says Dutch Report". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 26 September 2014. 
  19. ^ Iran Air 655, House Armed Services Hearing, July 21, 1992
  20. ^ Accident description for 15-2280 at the Aviation Safety Network
  21. ^ Kilroy. "Special Report: American Airlines Flight 191". Retrieved May 7, 2012. 
  22. ^ David Young. "The crash of American Airlines Flight 191 near O’Hare". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 7, 2012. 
  23. ^ The Washington Post Company (May 19, 1999). "The Bombing of Pan Am Flight 103". Retrieved May 7, 2012. 
  24. ^ The Learning Network (December 21, 2011). "December 21, 1988: Pan Am Flight 103 Crashes Over Lockerbie, Scotland". The New York Times. Retrieved March 22, 2014. 
  25. ^ The Washington Post Company (September 8, 1998). "Security Rukes Tightened for U.S. Airlines Abroad". Retrieved May 7, 2012. 
  26. ^ "'"1983: Korean airliner 'shot down. BBC News. September 1, 1983. Retrieved June 1, 2009. 
  27. ^ "Investigation of the Crash of American Airlines Flight 587". Retrieved May 7, 2012. 
  28. ^ AviationSafetyNetwork. "Accident description". Retrieved May 7, 2012. 
  29. ^ "Nagoya A300 Accident Report". Retrieved 26 April 2013. 
  30. ^ "Anniversary of Nationair plane crash passes quietly". BellMedia. Retrieved 28 August 2014. 
  31. ^ Accident description for ZK-NZP at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 24 August 2011.
  32. ^ "DC-10 playbacks awaited".  
  33. ^ "Air NZ apologises for Mt Erebus crash".  
  34. ^ AviationSafetyNetwork. "Accident description". Retrieved May 7, 2012. 
  35. ^ "How Things Work: Evacuation Slides". Air & Space Smithsonian. Retrieved May 9, 2012. 
  36. ^ "Advanced Avionics & GPS Instruction". Vector Sport Aviation. Retrieved May 9, 2012. 
  37. ^ "How Gas Turbine Engines Work". how stuffworks?. Retrieved May 9, 2012. 
  38. ^ "How Airplanes Work". how stuffworks?. Retrieved May 9, 2012. 
  39. ^ "Flying remains the safest form of travel". BBC News. May 8, 2000. Retrieved January 1, 2010. 
  40. ^ "Flight into danger". New Scientist Space. August 7, 1999. 
  41. ^ "The risks of travel". Archived from the original on September 7, 2001. Retrieved January 26, 2009.  The website attributes the source as an October 2000 article by editor Roger Ford in the magazine Modern Railways and based on an unidentified DETR survey.
  42. ^ David Noland (July 18, 2007). "Safest Seat on a Plane: PM Investigates How to Survive a Crash". Popular Mechanics. 
  43. ^ Watt, Nick (January 17, 2007). "Staying Alive During a Plane Crash". ABC News. Archived from the original on October 29, 2009. Retrieved December 2, 2009. 
  44. ^ "Aviation Safety Reporting System". ASRS. May 9, 2012. 
  45. ^ ACRO Presentation. Retrieved May 12, 2012
  46. ^ 2007 : excellent year for civil aviation Geneva, January 1, 2008
  47. ^ Death number by year (ACRO)
  48. ^ Accident number by year (ACRO)
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  50. ^ NLR-ATSI. "NLR-ATSI". Retrieved October 29, 2014. 
  51. ^ "Annex 13 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation: Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation" (PDF). ICAO. Retrieved January 9, 2012. 
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  62. ^ "Dutch Safety Board". Retrieved May 27, 2015. 
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  70. ^ Grossman, David. "Check your travel superstitions, or carry them on?," USA Today


See also Civil Aviation Authority
Aviation authorities
Air safety
Lists of military aircraft accidents
Types of accidents
Lists of airliner accidents

See also

It is common for an airline to cease using the flight number of a fatal crash, although that is not always the case.[70]

Retirement of flight numbers

United States civil aviation incidents are investigated by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). NTSB officials piece together evidence from the crash site to determine likely cause, or causes. The NTSB also investigates overseas incidents involving US-registered aircraft, in collaboration with local investigative authorities, especially when there is significant loss of American lives, or when the involved aircraft is American built.[69]

United States

In the United Kingdom, the agency responsible for investigation of civilian air crashes is the Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB) of the Department for Transport. Its purpose is to establish the circumstances and causes of the accident and to make recommendations for their future avoidance.[68]

United Kingdom

[67] In Taiwan, the


In Russia, the USSR area under the umbrella of the Air Accident Investigation Commission of the Interstate Aviation Committee.[66]


In New Zealand, the Transport Accident Investigation Commission (TAIC), is responsible for the investigation of air accidents.[63] "The Commission‟s purpose, as set out in its Act, is to determine the circumstances and causes of aviation, rail and maritime accidents, and incidents, with a view to avoiding similar occurrences in the future, rather than to ascribe blame to any person."[64] The TAIC will investigate in accordance with annex 13 of the ICAO[65]

New Zealand

[62] In The Netherlands, the Safety Board


Created in 1999 in Italy, the Presidency of the Council of Ministers of Italy.[61]


Until 30 May 2012, the Directorate General of Civil Aviation investigated incidents involving aircraft. Since then, the Aircraft Accident Investigation Bureau has taken over investigation responsibilities.[60]


In Hong Kong, the Civil Aviation Department's Flight Standards & Airworthiness Division and Accident Investigation Division are charged with accident investigation involving aircraft within Hong Kong.[58][59]

Hong Kong

In Germany, the agency for investigating air crashes is the Federal Bureau of Aircraft Accidents Investigation (BFU). It is an agency of the Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development.[56] The focus of the BFU is to improve safety by determining the causes of accidents and serious incidents and making safety recommendations to prevent recurrence.[57]


In France, the agency responsible for investigation of civilian air crashes is the Bureau d'Enquêtes et d'Analyses pour la Sécurité de l'Aviation Civile (BEA). Its purpose is to establish the circumstances and causes of the accident and to make recommendations for their future avoidance.[55]


In Canada, the Transportation Safety Board of Canada (TSB/BST), is an independent agency responsible for the advancement of transportation safety through the investigation and reporting of accident and incident occurrences in all prevalent Canadian modes of transportation — marine, air, rail and pipeline.[54]


In Brazil, the [53]


In Australia, the Australian Transport Safety Bureau is the federal government body responsible for investigating transport-related accidents and incidents, covering air, sea, and rail travel. Formerly an agency of the Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government, in 2010, in the interests of keeping its independence it became a stand-alone agency.[52]


Annex 13 of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is specifically focused on preventing accidents, rather than determining liability.


[50].NLR Air Transport Safety Institute States are required, according to ICAO Annex 13, on Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation, to report to ICAO information, on accidents and serious incidents to aircraft with a maximum certificated take-off mass (MTOM) over 2250 kg. Therefore, most statistics in this review concern aircraft above this mass. In addition to the ICAO data, a request was made to the EASA Member States to obtain light aircraft accident data. Furthermore, data on the operation of aircraft for commercial air transport was obtained from both ICAO and the [49] presents statistics on European and worldwide civil aviation safety. Statistics are grouped according to type of operation, for instance, commercial air transport, and aircraft category, such as aeroplanes, helicopters, gliders, etc. The Agency has access to accident and statistical information collected by the Annual Safety Review The

The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) is tasked by Article 15(4) of Regulation (EC) No 216/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of February 20, 2008 to provide an annual review of aviation safety.

Annual Aviation Safety Review (EASA)

Air accident fatalities recorded by ACRO 1918–2009
Air accident fatalities recorded by ACRO 1918–2009

Air accident incidents recorded by ACRO 1918–2009
Air accident incidents recorded by ACRO 1918–2009

Year Deaths[47] # of accidents[48]
2014 1,088 ?
2013 265 138
2012 794 119
2011 828 117
2010 1,115 130
2009 1,103 122
2008 884 156
2007 971 147
2006 1,294 166
2005 1,459 185
2004 771 172
2003 1,230 199
2002 1,413 185
2001 4,140 200
2000 1,582 189
1999 1,138 211
Reconstructed wreckage of TWA Flight 800

Annual fatalities have been less than 1,000 in six of the ten years since 2004, with 2013 experiencing the lowest number of fatalities, at 265, since the end of World War II. The nearly 3,000 deaths associated with the September 11 attacks escalated 2001 to a total of 4,140 deaths, the most since the end of World War II.

According to ACRO, recent years have been considerably safer for aviation, with fewer than 140 accidents every year between 2009 and 2013, compared to as many as 211 as recently as 1999.[46]

The Aircraft Crashes Record Office (ACRO), a non-government organization based in Geneva, compiles statistics on aviation accidents of aircraft capable of carrying more than six passengers, excluding helicopters, balloons, and combat aircraft. Note that ACRO only considers accidents in which the aircraft has suffered such damage that it is removed from service, which will further reduce the statistics for incidents and fatalities compared to some other data.[45]

Aircraft Crashes Record Office (ACRO)



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