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Health care in Iran

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Title: Health care in Iran  
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Health care in Iran

Imam Khomeini hospital

Healthcare in Iran is based on three pillars: the public-governmental system, the private sector, and

  • Health care and health tourism in Iran - Part I Part II Part III (PressTV Documentary)
  • PressTV report on organ transplantation in Iran on YouTube
  • PressTV report on stem cell research in Iran on YouTube
  • Iranian Traditional Medicine (PressTV)
  • Iran's Bio-implant Productions (PressTV 2010)
  • Hospitals in Iran (PressTV)
  • Iranian food industry (PressTV 2011)
  • Family doctor in Iran (PressTV 2012)
  • Impact of US sanctions on Iran's medical imports (PressTV 2012)
  • Iran's Nuclear medicine and agriculture (PressTV 2012)
  • Iran's first stem cell database bank (PressTV 2012)
  • Iran's new biopharmaceuticals (PressTV 2012)
  • Drug rehabilitation centers in Iran (PressTV 2014)
  • Traditional Iranian medicine supplementing conventional medications (PressTV 2014)
  • Iran holds neurosurgery, neurology confabs (PressTV 2014)
  • Iran launches universal health coverage for all Iranians (PressTV 2014)
Videos
  • Iran Pharma Brief study (2008)
  • Iran Pharmaceuticals and Healthcare Report (70-page report)
  • Iranian Pharma (2010) (251-page report)
  • Soft Gel Market in Iran: a Comprehensive Report
  • Iran Antibiotics Market
  • Tissue and Hygiene in Iran (2015)
Specialized reports
  • Ministry of Health and Medical Education - Iran
  • World Health Organization - Iran (statistics)
    • WHO/ Country Office - Iran
      • WHO/Country Profile - Iran
  • Health services and pharmaceuticals to Iran - Australian Trade
  • Statistical center of Iran
  • Iran Pharma (Regulation & market information, including list of top drug molecules and products)
  • Iranian pharmaceutical directory
  • United Nations World Drug Report 2010 and Iran
  • Iran-United States cooperation in primary health care

External links

  1. ^ Ayse, Valentine; Nash, Jason John; Leland, Rice (January 2013). "The Business Year 2013: Iran". London, U.K.: The Business Year. p. 156.  
  2. ^ Health services and pharmaceuticals to Iran - For Australian exporters - Austrade
  3. ^ a b c d "Iran Pharmaceuticals and Healthcare Report Q2". Payvand.com. 2009-03-25. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Iran: Healthcare and Pharmaceuticals Forecast".  
  5. ^ Tober, Diane (2007). "Kidneys and Controversies in the Islamic Republic of Iran: The Case of Organ Sale.".  
  6. ^ Fry-Revere, Sigrid (2014). The Kidney Sellers:A Journey of Discovery in Iran. Carolina Academic Press. 
  7. ^ WHO,  
  8. ^ a b http://www.bloomberg.com/visual-data/best-and-worst/most-efficient-health-care-countries
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  10. ^ "At a glance: Iran (Islamic Republic of) - The big picture". UNICEF. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  11. ^ "Press TV". Press TV. 2011-01-18. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  12. ^ "The best and worst of worlds: Tehran's public hospital wards".  
  13. ^ http://www3.who.int/whosis/core/core_select_process.cfm?country=irn&indicators=healthpersonnel&intYear_select=all&language=en
  14. ^ "Press TV". Press TV. 2011-11-25. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  15. ^ http://www.unicef.org/iran/media_4427.html
  16. ^ "Fars News Agency :: Ahmadinejad Stresses Iran's Growing Medical Tourism Industry". English.farsnews.com. 2012-01-17. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  17. ^ http://www.payvand.com/news/13/apr/1062.html
  18. ^ "Iran reports earnings of $1.5bn from health tourism in 2012". International Medical Travel Journal. 
  19. ^ http://www.unicef.org/specialsession/about/sgreport-pdf/03_SafeDrinkingWater_D7341Insert_English.pdf
  20. ^ Iran_islamic_rep_of_04.xls
  21. ^ [10]
  22. ^ a b http://www.payvand.com/news/14/sep/1091.html
  23. ^ "Resources - Soft Drinks". Atieh Bahar. 2008-10-20. Archived from the original on 2014-02-01. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  24. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d7Il1hYHV_s
  25. ^ http://www.payvand.com/news/15/jul/1053.html
  26. ^ "Health Minister: 60% of Iranians are overweight". Payvand.com. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  27. ^ Vast majority of Iranians don't get regular exercise Radio Zamaneh, June 14, 2015. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  28. ^ a b http://www.tehrantimes.com/politics/118310-674-of-iranian-youths-use-internet-survey
  29. ^ Iran cholera outbreak takes more life, mullahs' regime clueless - Persian Journal Iran news, Latest iran news Iranian newspaper women zan
  30. ^ "Country profile - US library of Congress" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  31. ^ "Countries". Unaids.org. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  32. ^ "Graphs: Iran in UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2010". Payvand.com. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  33. ^ "Surge in Iran's AIDS death rate". Payvand.com. 2009-03-21. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  34. ^ "Iran fights rise in sexually transmitted HIV". Reuters. 2008-11-25. 
  35. ^ "'Iran has 100,000 HIV-infected people'". Presstv.ir. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  36. ^ "United Nations World Drug Report 2010 and Iran". Payvand.com. 2010-06-24. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  37. ^ "Current substance use in patients with gastric cancer in Southern Iran Tabei SZ, Heydari ST, Mehrabani D, Shamsina SJ, Ahmadi J, Firouzi SM - J Can Res Ther". Cancerjournal.net.  
  38. ^ [11]
  39. ^ "Iran has 1.2 million drug addicts". AFP. 2009-05-07. 
  40. ^ [12]
  41. ^ "Iran discovers 3 tons of drugs daily: Police Chief". Payvand.com. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  42. ^ "3 tons of drugs seized in Iran every day: police". Payvand.com. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  43. ^ http://www.unodc.org/pdf/afg/afg_drug-situation_2002-10-01_1.pdf
  44. ^ "وب سایتهای ایرنا - Irna". Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  45. ^ a b "25% of death in Iran caused by tobacco: Minister". Payvand.com. 2009-05-31. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  46. ^ "Iran Compulsory Rules". The Smokers Club, Inc. 2007-12-22. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  47. ^ a b c "No. 3732 | National | Page 3". Irandaily. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  48. ^ "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. 2006-10-04. Archived from the original on 2006-10-04. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  49. ^ [13]
  50. ^ http://www.nitc.co.ir/iran-daily/1385/2798/html/index.htm
  51. ^ "Iran - Havocscope Black Markets". Havocscope.com. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  52. ^ "Havocscope Black Markets Listing - Havocscope Black Markets". Havocscope.com. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  53. ^ [14]
  54. ^ MSN Encarta Encyclopedia entry on Iran - People and Society, CIA World factbook 2007. Archived 2009-10-31.
  55. ^ Iran tops world in birth control, payvand.com 04/17/09, accessdate = 2010-03-23
  56. ^ a b "International News | World News - ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. 2013-04-03. Retrieved 2013-04-07. 
  57. ^ http://www.payvand.com/news/14/jan/1215.html
  58. ^ http://www.payvand.com/news/15/feb/1112.html
  59. ^ "Iran Health Indicators and Health Care System". Iranpharmaceutical.com. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  60. ^ "وب سایتهای ایرنا - Irna". Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  61. ^ "Over 0.4 million lost lives in Iran in 10 years due to accidents". Payvand.com. Retrieved 2013-04-07. 
  62. ^ http://www.payvand.com/news/14/aug/1109.html
  63. ^ http://www.payvand.com/news/15/may/1134.html
  64. ^ http://www.payvand.com/news/15/may/1134.html
  65. ^ Iran-Daily: Biggest Pharmaceutical Plant to Open Soon
  66. ^ Iran Daily - National - 07/01/07
  67. ^ [15]
  68. ^ a b c Greg Palast. "Pharmaceuticals: Afghan Ufficiale: La NATO Airstrike Uccide 14". OfficialWire. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  69. ^ BMI Iran Pharmaceuticals and Healthcare Report
  70. ^ Nasoohi, Sasan (2008-12-10). "Iran Pharma: 12/10/08". Iran-pharma.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  71. ^ a b c d e http://www.turquoisepartners.com/iraninvestment/IIM-Dec10.pdf
  72. ^ http://en.mehrnews.com/detail/News/106602
  73. ^ "No. 3644 | Science | Page 8". Irandaily. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  74. ^ "Iran joins world vaccine producers". Zawya. 2010-05-06. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  75. ^ "Iran to gain self-sufficiency in vaccine production". Payvand.com. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  76. ^ "No. 3827 | Front page | Page 1". Irandaily. 2010-11-15. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  77. ^ "Iran to produce 8 recombinant drugs". PressTV. 2010-12-14. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  78. ^ "No Operation". Presstv.com. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  79. ^ "No Operation". Presstv.com. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  80. ^ "Iranian researchers produce new medicine for cancer treatment". Payvand.com. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  81. ^ "Iranian scientists produce new drugs". Payvand.com. Retrieved 2013-04-07. 
  82. ^ "PressTV - Iran making advancements In biosimilar medicines". Presstv.ir. 2012-01-20. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  83. ^ "No Operation". Presstv.com. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  84. ^ http://www.payvand.com/news/14/jun/1186.html
  85. ^ http://en.mehrnews.com/detail/News/103081
  86. ^ "Iran’s share of worldwide medicinal plant trade barely 2%". Mehrnews.com. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  87. ^ a b "No. 3632 | Domestic Economy | Page 4". Irandaily. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  88. ^ "Resources - Pharmaceuticals". Atieh Bahar. 2008-10-20. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  89. ^ http://www.turquoisepartners.com/iraninvestment/IIM-Jun10.pdf
  90. ^ "Iran Pharmaceutical Local Manufacturing Market Review 2004-2008. Market Research Report (IRP 00019)". Reportbuyer.com. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  91. ^ http://www.nti.org/country-profiles/iran/biological/
  92. ^ Sasan Nasoohi. "Iran Pharma". Iran-pharma.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  93. ^ [16]
  94. ^ http://www.wsj.com/articles/in-iran-business-deals-rarely-smooth-1436917050

References

See also

U.S. sanctions against Iran do not apply to medical equipment or pharmaceuticals. There are over 100 Iranian companies representing the international suppliers in this market, handling both promotion and the after-sales service of the products. Iran is a mature market when it comes to medical equipment. Most of the major international players in this sector are present in the Iran market:

Iran MED and Iran LAB are the main annual exhibitions relating to medical and laboratory equipment in Tehran.[93] In 2009, approximately $3.1 billion worth of drugs and medical products were consumed in Iran. This shows an 80% increase from 3 years ago.[71] Iran’s per capita consumption is $21, as opposed to the global average of $94 because Iran subsidizes heavily its medical and pharmaceutical industry.[71] In 2009, Iran exported $74 million worth of "medical products" to countries such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Russia.[71]

The Department of Medical Equipments in the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) is responsible for supervising imports in this segment, but the import and distribution of such equipment is mostly handled by the private sector. Iran has undergone the primary stages of development in terms of industrialisation and a rather strong indigenous manufacturing capability exists in the country. Therefore, one can expect to find a handful of local producers for basic medical equipment, making it very hard to penetrate into the Iranian market for similar imported ones.

Medical equipment

Top 5 import agencies[92]

The Razi Institute for Serums and Vaccines and the Pasteur Institute of Iran are leading regional facilities in the development and manufacture of vaccines.[91]

Top 10 local manufacturers[90]

The leading pharmaceuticals company is Darou Pakhsh has an annual turnover of US$400m and claims to have the largest research and development operation of any Iranian drug firm. The company formed a plasmapheresis joint venture with a German medical firm, Biotest AG, in early 2004.[4] As of 2010, 50% of raw materials and chemicals used in the drug manufacturing sector are imported.[89] Iranian pharmaceutical manufacturers are also disadvantaged by the government′s poor intellectual property protection regime and because of lack of foreign direct investment.[3]

There are 92 companies in Iran that are active in the pharmaceutical industry.[71] The Social Security Investment Co. (SSIC), Iran's largest holding company, which is affiliated to the Ministry of Welfare, presently owns and controls 22 pharmaceutical manufacturing companies and possesses a 40% share of total pharmaceutical production in Iran.[88]

Inside Aryogen, production line for AryoSeven
Inside AryoGen company's production line.

Pharmaceutical companies

In recent years several drugmakers are gradually developing the ability to innovate, away from generic drugs production itself.[68] Iran has around 8000 species of plant life and researches indicate that more than 2300 species have remedial characteristics or can be used as cosmetic products;[85] only 100-300 of which are being used in pharmaceutical industries at present.[86][87] Iran has 80 percent of the world medicinal herbs. Due to lack of required technology, they are exported raw and in limited quantities to foreign markets.[87]

Innovation

According to the Food and Drug Administration in 2014, drugs for sexual enhancement, weight control, aesthetics, height enhancement, hair growth and body building are among the more prevalent fake drugs on the market. Trade in counterfeit commercial drugs, most of which come from Pakistan, has become more lucrative than dealing in illegal narcotics.[84]

Iranian researchers have developed 41 types of anti-cancer medications, overcoming the need for importing pricey cancer drugs from abroad (2011).[79][80][81] There are also 24 additional biosimilar drugs which Iran plans to bring into production by end of 2012.[82] Iran plans to become self-sufficient in biotech medicines production within 4 years.[83]

The new drugs launched in Iran for the treatment of MS include an interferon beta-1b by CinnaGen.[76] Gamma Immunex (recombinant interferon beta 1), Pegaferon (recombinant pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN)) and regenerative human factor VIII are among other recombinant-based medication made in Iran.[77] A generic version of fingolimod by Novartis has been launched as well as a biosimilar version of EMD Serono′s Rebif.[78]

The Islamic Republic of Iran is the first country in the East Mediterranean region which has the technical and scientific capability to export vaccines to various world countries.[74] Iran will gain self-sufficiency in vaccine production by 2014.[75]

Iran has produced a wide range of pharmaceuticals drugs for the treatment of cancer, diabetes, infection and depression.[73]

Products

The market share of local production (value-wise) has declined from 85.2% to 63.4% over the past 8 (Iranian) years (2009). In this period the value of importation has jumped from 14.8% to 36.6%.[70] The government imposes 90% tariff on the import of drugs. In 2009, 1.8 million units of pharmaceutical products worth $1.2 billion were imported into Iran.[71] As of 2015, Iran’s share of global biotechnology market is half a billion US dollar.[72]

The drug market in Iran is heavily in favour of generic medicines, which contributed US$1.23bn to the total in 2009, with patented drugs at US$817mn and OTC medicines at US$262mn.[68]

In 2006, 55 pharmaceutical companies in Iran produce more than 96 percent (quantitatively) of medicines on the market, worth $1.2 billion annually.[66] Iran’s pharmaceutical market is estimated to be worth $1.87 billion (2008), $2.31 billion (2009), $3.26 billion (2011), $3,57 billion (2013) and $3.65bn by 2013 (projected).[3][67][68][69]

Market

Although over 85 percent of the population use an insurance system to reimburse their drug expenses, the government heavily subsidizes pharmaceutical production/importation in order to increase affordability of medicines, which tends also to increase overconsumption, overprescription and misuse of drugs, much like the abuse of pharmaceutical opioids in Iran such as the heavily prescribed codeine for moderate to severe pain. The regulatory environment of the country is rather strict on the import of drugs and pharmaceuticals towards companies that intend to enter into the market for the first time. The Ministry of Health and Medical Education is the main stakeholder of pharmaceutical affairs in the country.

Iran’s Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) has a mission to provide access to sufficient quantities of safe, effective and high quality medicines that are affordable for the entire population. Since the 1979 revolution, Iran has adopted a full generic-based National Drug Policy (NDP), with local production of essential drugs and vaccines as one of the main goals.[65]

The pharmaceutical industry in Iran began in its modern form in 1920 when the Pasteur Institute of Iran was founded. Iran has a well-developed pharmaceutical production capability, however, the country still relies on imports for raw materials and many specialized drugs. The standards regarding pharmaceutical products in Iran are determined and modified by the Pharmacopeia Council.

Pharmaceuticals

According to Iran’s parliamentary committee on health and treatment in 2015, 12 million Iranians suffer from mental illnesses (mostly stemming from economic reasons).[63] According to the ministry of health, mental issues among women is a major problem and it is the second cause of death and disabilities among men.[64]

From 2001 to 2010, over 438,000 Iranians have died from "unnatural deaths" such as electric shocks, gas poisoning, and drug intoxication.[61] 4,055 people committed suicide in 2013 and the number of suicides is on the rise. The Association of Social Workers of Iran released in 2013 indicating 61,000 people committed suicide in Iran from 2001 to 2011.[62]

Addiction is the fourth major cause of death in Iran following road accidents, heart disease and depression.[60]

According to Ministry of Health and Medical Education, in 2003, 41% of total deaths were due to diseases of the circulatory system. Myocardial infarction as the cause of 25% of deaths was the leading cause of mortality among the population.[59]

In the early 2000s the main natural causes of death have been cardiovascular disease and cancer. Cancer Research Center of Iran says 41,000 Iranians die of cancer each year.[57] According to Iran's Health Ministry, the most fatal cancer for men across the country is stomach cancer and for women is breast cancer with 90,000 new cancer cases reported each year (2015).[58]

Leading causes of mortality

The Islamic Republic of Iran has a comprehensive and effective program of social security costs.[56]

Family planning

Prohibited in Iran because of the Islamic law, except for non-Muslims who can legally consume alcoholic beverages in private. Alcohol smuggling into Iran was estimated at nearly $1 billion in 2010.[51][52] More than 200,000 people in Iran are estimated to be involved in bootlegging. Many rely on what's made in people's basements or gardens in unsanitary conditions.[53]

Alcohol consumption

The prevalence of respiratory diseases and cancers in Iran is increasing at a significant rate, also because of air pollution in Tehran.[3] It is estimated that 5 million Iranian children suffer from asthma.[49] The World Bank estimates losses inflicted on Iran’s economy as a result of deaths caused by air pollution at $640 million, which is equal to 5.1 trillion rials or 0.57 percent of GDP.[50] Substandard gasoline and imported car brakes are also a reported health hazard/air pollutant according to the authorities.

Air pollution

About 20% of adult male and 4.5% of adult female population in the country smoke tobacco (12 million smokers according to some estimates).[44][45] 60,000 Iranians die directly or indirectly due to smoking every year (2008).[46] Smoking is responsible for 25% of death in the country.[45] Approx. 54bn-60bn cigarettes are believed to be consumed annually in Iran.[47] Around 2.7bn cigarettes are smuggled into Iran annually, according to officials from the state-owned Iranian Tobacco Company (ITC), on top of another 26.7bn which are imported legally (2008).[4] Imports of cigarettes, tobacco, cigars, cigarette paper, cigarette tips are subject to government monopoly.[48] Iranians spend more than $1.8 billion a year on tobacco.[47] According to a 2010-law, smokers henceforth will not be appointed to senior government jobs.[47]

Iran has implemented a strict ghalyun, the traditional Persian waterpipe, which is a must in Iranian tea houses. A smoking ban for all car drivers nationwide was implemented since March 2006, and although offenders could face fines, the ban was widely ignored by the drivers. Also selling tobacco products to anyone under 18 would result in confiscation of the vendor's tobacco products and a cash fine. Repeated violations would lead to high cash fines.

Smoking

Iran discovers 3 tons of drugs daily.[41][42] In 2005, estimates of the number of drug addicts ranged from 2 to 4 million (1.2 million according to the Government).[43] Reasons for addiction include lack of economic prospects among the youth and lack of freedom. In a 2014-survey, 30.6% of the youth considered financial issues as their biggest concern, while 28.9% chose unemployment, 10.8% university acceptance, and 7.5% marriage issues as their biggest worries.[28]

Drug addiction constitutes a major health problem. Iran is situated along one of the main trafficking routes for cannabis, heroin, opium and morphine produced in Afghanistan, and designer drugs have also found their way into the local market in recent years. Iran ranks first worldwide in the prevalence of opiate addiction with 2.8% of its population addicted.[36] Initiation age for most Iranian addicts is their 20s.[37] Hundreds of drug production laboratories have been set up in Pakistan and Afghanistan.[38] Iran's police said in April 2009 that 7,700 tonnes of opium was produced in Afghanistan in 2008, of which 3000 tonnes entered Iran, adding that the force had managed to seize 1000 tonnes of the smuggled opium.[39] Iran spent over 600 million dollars in just the last two years to dig canals, build barriers and install barbed wire to seal off the country’s crime-infested borders.[40]

Illegal drugs

The rate of the epidemic in Iran is however still very low compared to international standards. Iran has a low prevalence of HIV infections with a rate of about 0.16 percent of the adult population (18,000 cases, officially) compared with 0.8 percent in North America (2008).[34] But according to the WHO, as of the end of 2009, there are more than 100,000 AIDS sufferers in Iran (approximately 0.135% of the Iranian population).[35]

According to the United Nations, AIDS has been increasing in Iran at a rapid rate.[31] The major factor fuelling the epidemic until now has been injecting drug use, while there is an increase in sexual transmission of the disease. An estimated 14% of people who inject drugs countrywide were living with HIV in 2007.[32] In 2009, men account for 93 percent of the HIV patients, and women comprise 7 percent of the infected population.[33]

Increased drug use has driven up the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In 2005 two-thirds of the official total of 9,800 HIV cases were attributed to drug use. Iran has established a national HIV treatment system, including 150 testing sites and a free needle exchange program.[30]

HIV/AIDS

Cholera has been a persistent problem in Iran. In the 2005 epidemic which involved loss of lives, state television warned people not to eat vegetables or buy ice blocks on the streets.[29] Salads were also banned in some restaurants. The 1998 epidemic involved considerably more cases and loss of life.

Cholera

Immunization of children is accessible to most of the urban and rural population.[4]

Communicable diseases & addictions

Physical fitness: As an additional measure of public health and inefficient food distribution, about thirteen percent of the young people are classified as obese, according to the United Nations FAO sources. According to the government of Iran, about 60 percent of Iranians are overweight and 35 percent of women and 15 percent of men suffer from obesity in Iran.[26] Despite the young age of many Iranians, only 20 percent of Iranians are physically active while the world average is 60 percent.[27] 30% of Iranian youths never play any sports.[28]

Food safety & food packaging: The Codex Commission of Food Stuff, established in 2002 is in charge of setting and developing standards and quality and health regulations, related to the production of and trade in raw agricultural products and food stuffs, in accordance with the different global standards. Tainted meat has been imported according to Iranian authorities.[24] Uncontrolled use of pesticides is also a problem. Despite the potential health hazards caused by GM food and government restrictions on the production of biotech products, Iran imports $5 billion of genetically modified crops a year because of laxed laws (2015).[25]

Diet, food ingredients & junk food: The soft drinks industry is valued at about $2 billion a year. As of 2008, Iran produces about 3 billion litres of different types of soft drinks to address consumption of 46 litres per capita, and exports more than 12% of its production. Increased awareness with regards to the damages of carbonated drinks and sugar, and high levels of diabetes has created a move towards healthier products.[23]

Nutrition: Forty-five million Iranians face inadequate nutrition according to Iranian officials.[22] Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad, Sistan-Baluchistan, Hormozgan, Kerman and Khuzestan as provinces that face malnutrition or food insecurity.[22]

Percentage of national population suffering from malnutrition, according to United Nations statistics.

Nutrition and fitness

There is a considerable shortfall in sewage treatment; for example, in Tehran the majority of the population has no wastewater treatment, with raw sewage being injected directly into the groundwater.[21] As the water crisis deepens with an expanding population, this pollution of groundwater causes increasing health risks.

Iran has one of the highest percentages of population in the Middle East with access to safe drinking water, with an estimated 92% of its people enjoying such access (nearly 100% in urban areas and about 80% in rural areas as of 2007).[19][20]

Water and sanitation

In 2012, 30,000 people visited Iran each year to receive medical treatment.[16][17] Most health tourists were from Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Iraq, Turkey, Kuwait, Oman, India and Pakistan.[18]

Health tourism

Although overall improvements have been achieved in all health areas since the 1979 revolution, the present challenging economic conditions of the country, combined with rapid advances in medical technology and information technology, individuals’ expectations, and the young demographic of the population will undoubtedly challenge the sustainability of past improving trends.

Development

An elaborate system of health network has been established which has ensured provision of Primary Health Care (PHC) to the vast majority of public (rated "excellent" by UNICEF).[15] However, access and availability of health care continues to be somewhat limited in lesser developed provinces where the health indices are also lower as compared to national averages. The country is in an epidemiologic transition and faces double burden of the diseases. New emerging threats should also be considered. The demographic and epidemiological transition underway will have a significant effect on the pattern of morbidity and mortality in the near and distance future, especially as it affects the emergence of chronic non-communicable diseases and the health problems of an aging population.

According to the last census that Statistical Centre of Iran undertook in 2003, Iran possesses 730 medical establishments (e.g. hospitals, clinics) with a total of 110,797 nurses and 17 hospital beds per 10,000 population.[4]

Today the largest healthcare delivery network is owned and run by the insurance firm. Some hospitals, such as Mahak for children's cancer, are run by charitable foundations.

Shariati Hospital in Tehran

Health network

Healthcare system in Iran (2011)[14]
Medical Schools 51
Medical Students 1 million
Professors of Medicine 20,000
Hospital Beds 120,000
Village Clinics 20,000
Doctors 100,000
Nurses 170,000

Iran has been very successful in training/educating the necessary human resources for its health system. The system of almost 30 years ago where the country was facing a shortage of all kinds of skilled personnel in the health and medical sector has been completely changed into one in which the necessary professionals now completely suffice the country’s needs. There are now 488 government funded hospitals in Iran. There were 0.5-1.1 physicians per 1000 population in 2004 according to various estimates (about 46 percent of physicians were women).[13]

Dental care facility in Iran (circa 1970)

Workforce

The WHO. Access ranged from 86% in rural areas to 100% in urban areas.[4] Between 80% and 94% of the population could access affordable essential medicines in 1999.[4] Since 2009, a new government plan called "the comprehensive insurance plan" provides basic coverage to all Iranians.[11] In April 2014 the first phase of a new health plan (Tarh-e Salaamat) was introduced under the presidency of Hassan Rouhani, covering up to 90 percent of costs for patients' medical bills at public hospitals, and making extra provision for remote areas and those with rare diseases.[12]

Coverage

IRAN: Healthcare (Source: EIU)[4] 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Life expectancy, average (years) 70.0 70.3 70.6 70.9 71.1 71.4
Healthcare spending (% of GDP) 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2
Healthcare spending ($ per head) 113 132 150 191 223 261

Health services

Contents

  • Health services 1
    • Coverage 1.1
    • Workforce 1.2
    • Health network 1.3
    • Development 1.4
      • Health tourism 1.4.1
  • Water and sanitation 2
  • Nutrition and fitness 3
  • Communicable diseases & addictions 4
    • Cholera 4.1
    • HIV/AIDS 4.2
    • Illegal drugs 4.3
    • Smoking 4.4
    • Air pollution 4.5
    • Alcohol consumption 4.6
  • Family planning 5
  • Leading causes of mortality 6
  • Pharmaceuticals 7
    • Market 7.1
      • Products 7.1.1
        • Innovation 7.1.1.1
    • Pharmaceutical companies 7.2
      • Top 10 local manufacturers 7.2.1
      • Top 5 import agencies 7.2.2
  • Medical equipment 8
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • External links 11

[4] of children is accessible to most of the urban and rural population.Immunization [10] As a result, child and maternal mortality rates have fallen significantly, and life expectancy at birth has risen remarkably. Infant (IMR) and under-five (U5MR) mortality have decreased to 28.6 and 35.6 per 1,000 live births respectively in 2000, compared to an IMR of 122 per 1,000 and a U5MR of 191 per 1,000 in 1970.[9].Primary Health Care Network through the establishment of an extensive preventive services The health status of Iranians has improved over the last two decades. Iran has been able to extend public health [8] The report shows life expectancy in Iran is 73 years and per capita spending on healthcare is $346.[8] ranked Iran 45th most efficient health care system ahead of United States and Brazil.Bloomberg News In 2013, [7] According to the

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