Albert Woodfox

The Angola Three are three prison inmates – Robert Hillary King (born Robert King Wilkerson), Albert Woodfox and Herman Wallace – who were put in solitary confinement in Louisiana State Penitentiary, a.k.a. Angola Prison, after the 1972 killing of a prison guard. Robert King spent 29 years in solitary confinement before his conviction was overturned and he was released. Wallace, before being released October 1, 2013, and Woodfox spent 40 years of solitary confinement as of 2013. The prisoners have been the subject of two documentary films[1] and international attention. In July 2013 Amnesty International called for the release of 71-year-old Herman Wallace, who had advanced liver cancer.[2] He was released October 1, 2013, and died three days later, on October 4, 2013.[3]


The three men were sent to Angola in 1971 after a conviction for armed robbery.[4] Woodfox escaped from a Louisiana courthouse during his sentencing for armed robbery and joined the Black Panther Party.[5] As members of the prison's chapter of the Black Panthers, Wallace and Woodfox became activists seeking to improve conditions at Angola.[4] They helped organize petitions and hunger strikes to protest segregation within the prison, and to end systematic rape and violence.[6]

Woodfox and Wallace were convicted of the 1972 stabbing murder of 23-year-old prison guard Brent Miller.[7] (King was said by authorities to be linked to the murder but was not charged.[8]) According to a July 2013 press release by Amnesty International, Woodfox and Wallace

were convicted of the murder of a prison guard in 1973, yet no physical evidence links them to the crime – potentially exculpatory DNA evidence has been lost and the testimony of the main eyewitness has been discredited. Citing racial discrimination, misconduct by the prosecution, and inadequate defense, state and federal judges overturned Woodfox’s conviction three times, while Wallace’s case is once again up for review before the federal courts.[2]

The three men were taken out of the general prison population and were held in solitary confinement after Miller's murder in 1972.[7] They remained in solitary confinement until former Black Panther member Malik Rahim of Common Ground Collective, and a young law student, Scott Fleming, in 1997 discovered that these men were still locked up. They began investigating the case, questioning the facts of the original investigations at Angola and raising questions about their original trials.

Robert Hillary King was released after 29 years in solitary confinement after his first conviction was overturned and he pleaded guilty to a lesser conspiracy to commit murder charge. Woodfox and Wallace were still in prison at Angola prison and were working to get released at the time. In March 2008, Woodfox and Wallace were moved after 36 years, from solitary confinement to a maximum security dormitory.[9]

Albert Woodfox had two appeal hearings (one in November 2008 and one in May 2010), which resulted of his conviction being overturned and him being granted full habeas corpus. Both appeals were overturned. Immediately after the first in November 2008, both men were moved out of the dormitory, separated and placed back in isolation and in March 2009, Wallace, along with a group of 15 inmates from Angola, was moved to Elayn Hunt Correctional Center where a closed cell isolation tier was created for the first time. In November 2010, Albert was moved to David Wade Correctional Center, which is seven hours north of his family and supporters.

As of March 2013 the federal District Court judge in New Orleans has overturned Woodfox’s conviction for the third time. However, Louisiana Attorney General James Caldwell has promised to appeal the District Court’s decision to the more conservative Fifth Circuit: “We feel confident that we will again prevail at the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals. However, if we do not, we are fully prepared and willing to retry this murderer again.”[10]

Both men, whose sentences for their original crimes have expired, suffered from a range of different medical issues – some due in part to their conditions of confinement and their enforced sedentary lifestyle.

Their cases have gained increased interest over the last few years. Since his release, Robert Hillary King has worked to build international recognition for the Angola 3. He has spoken before the parliaments in the Netherlands, France, Portugal, Indonesia, Brazil and Britain and about the case, and political prisoners in the U.S. King was received as a guest and dignitary by the African National Congress in South Africa, and has spoken with Desmond Tutu. Amnesty International has added them to their watch list of "political prisoners" / "prisoners of conscience."

They have been the subject of two documentary films. A 2006 documentary film 3 Black Panthers and the Last Slave Plantation and of a music video produced by Dave Stewart of the Eurythmics in protest of the incarceration of the Angola 3 features Saul Williams, Nadirah X, Asdru Sierra, Dana Glover, Tina Schlieske, Derrick Ashong and Stewart.[11]

A 2010 documentary of them, In the Land of the Free, was directed by Vadim Jean and narrated by Samuel L. Jackson. The film features Robert King, telephone interviews with Woodfox and Wallace, and interviews with attorneys and others involved with the cases – including the widow of Brent Miller, who believes the men are innocent of her husband's murder.

They had a pending civil suit, Wilkerson, Wallace and Woodfox vs. the State of Louisiana, which the United States Supreme Court ruled has merit to proceed to trial based on the fact that their 30+ years in solitary confinement is "inhumane and unconstitutional". The outcome of this landmark civil case could eliminate long term solitary confinement in U.S. prisons.

There are also strong opponents of the inmates release. Louisiana’s Attorney General, James Caldwell, has stated that he opposes releasing the two men “with every fiber of my being,”[12] and that they have never been held in solitary confinement but are in "protective cell units known as CCR [Closed Cell Restricted]".[10] The Warden of Angola and Hunt prisons, Burl Cain, who promotes a "Christian-based message" to turn the lives of inmates, has "more than once suggested" that Woodfox and Wallace must be held in solitary because they ascribe to “Black Pantherism.”[12][13]

Herman Wallace was the subject of an ongoing socio-political art project entitled "The House That Herman Built", in which artist Jackie Sumell asked Wallace what his dream home would be like, and documented his response in various media.[14] In 2012, the film Herman's House was released.[15]

Amnesty International called for his release in July 2013 on humanitarian grounds.
Wallace was 71 years old and has advanced liver cancer. After decades of cruel conditions and a conviction that continues to be challenged by the courts, he should be released immediately to his family so that he can be cared for humanely during his last months.[2]

On October 1, 2013, Wallace was granted immediate release by a federal judge in Baton Rouge, Louisiana after being in solitary confinement for over forty years. He was taken to a hospice in New Orleans. The state is appealing the Federal Judge's orders, seeking to keep Wallace in prison despite the orders from the judge. A threat by the judge to see anyone standing in the way of Wallace's release held in contempt of court saw him freed.[16]

On October 3, 2013, a West Feliciana Parish grand jury re-indicted Wallace for the 1972 murder of the prison security guard. An immediate arrest did not occur, however, for unknown reasons.[17]

On October 4, 2013, Herman Wallace died, just three days after being released from prison in Louisiana after 42 years in solitary confinement. Jackie Sumell, an artist and Wallace supporter who was with him at the Louisiana State University Medical Center in New Orleans after his release: "This is a tremendous victory and a miracle that Herman Wallace will die a free man," Sumell says. "He’s had 42 years of maintaining his innocence in solitary confinement, and if his last few breaths are as a free man, we’ve won."[18]

See also


External links

  • Article at
  • Amnesty International Public Statement
  • Grassroots Actions Announcements & Documentation Site
  • Robert Hillary King's Official Web site
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