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Clarksdale, Mississippi

Clarksdale, Mississippi
City
Nickname(s): The Golden Buckle on the Cotton Belt
Location of Clarksdale, Mississippi
Location of Clarksdale, Mississippi
Clarksdale, Mississippi is located in USA
Clarksdale, Mississippi
Location in the United States
Coordinates:
Country United States
State Mississippi
County Coahoma
Government
 • Mayor Bill Luckett (D)
Area
 • Total 13.8 sq mi (35.9 km2)
 • Land 13.8 sq mi (35.8 km2)
 • Water 0.0 sq mi (0.0 km2)
Elevation 174 ft (53 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total 17,962
 • Density 1,293.1/sq mi (499.2/km2)
Time zone Central (CST) (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP codes 38614, 38669
Area code(s) 662
FIPS code 28-13820
GNIS feature ID 0666084

Clarksdale is a city in Coahoma County, Mississippi, and seat of the county.[1] The western boundary of the county is formed by the Mississippi River. Located in the Mississippi Delta region, Clarksdale is an agricultural and trading center. It has been home to many blues musicians. Clarksdale is named after John Clark, who founded the city in the mid-19th century.

Contents

  • History 1
    • Early history 1.1
    • The Great Migration 1.2
    • Recent history 1.3
  • Geography 2
  • Demographics 3
  • Education 4
    • Community colleges 4.1
    • Public schools 4.2
    • Private schools 4.3
  • Media 5
    • Newspapers 5.1
    • Radio stations 5.2
  • Music history 6
    • Delta Blues Museum 6.1
    • Mississippi Blues Trail markers 6.2
  • Clarksdale in popular culture 7
  • Notable people 8
    • Born in Clarksdale 8.1
    • Lived or worked in Clarksdale 8.2
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • Further reading 11
  • External links 12

History

The Sunflower River Bridge in Clarksdale, 1890

Early history

Pontotoc, Mississippi.[2] The first removal treaty carried out under the Indian Removal Act was the 1830 Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, by which the Choctaw people ceded about 11 million acres in exchange for about 15 million acres in Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). A similar forced removal of the Chickasaw Nation began in 1837; once in Indian Territory, they paid the Choctaw $530,000 for the westernmost part of their land.

Following the removal of the Indians, European-American settlers migrated to the Delta region, where the fertile soil was excellent for growing cotton. They brought or purchased African-American slaves to work the several cotton plantations developed in the county, always locating these on the riverfront for transportation access. John Clark founded the town in 1848 when he bought land in the area and started a timber business. Clark married the sister of James Lusk Alcorn, a major planter who owned a nearby plantation. Alcorn became a politician, elected by the state legislature as US Senator and later elected as governor of the state. Thriving from the cotton trade and associated business, Clarksdale soon earned the title "The Golden Buckle on the Cotton Belt".

African-American slaves made the plantations work and built the wealth of King Cotton in the state. U.S. Census data shows Coahoma County, Mississippi's 1860 population was 1,521 whites and 5,085 slaves.[3] James Alcorn was a major planter, owning 77 slaves.

When slavery was abolished, many black families labored as sharecroppers. They gained some independence but were often at a disadvantage in negotiations with white planters. Historian Nicholas Lemann writes "segregation strengthened the grip of the sharecropper system by ensuring that most blacks would have no arena of opportunity in life except for the cotton fields" (p. 6).[4] During the Reconstruction Era following the Civil War, Mississippi’s blacks and poor whites both benefited from the State's new constitution of 1868, which adopted universal suffrage; did away with property qualifications for suffrage or for office; provided for the state's first public school system; forbade race distinctions in the possession and inheritance of property; and prohibited limiting civil rights in travel.[5]

Those gains were short-lived, as insurgent white paramilitary groups such as the Red Shirts worked to suppress black voting from 1868 on. By 1875 white Democrats took control of the state legislature in Mississippi. They later passed Jim Crow laws, including legal segregation of public facilities. A freedman named Bill Peace, who had served in the Union Army and returned to Clarksdale after the war, persuaded his former owner to allow him to form a security force to prevent theft from the plantation. On October 9, 1875, whites in Clarksdale began hearing rumors that "General Peace" was preparing his troops to plunder the town; rumors spread that he was planning to murder the whites. A white militia was formed, and they suppressed Peace’s "revolt". Across Mississippi, white militias frequently formed in response to similar fears of armed black revolt.

Twentieth-century historian Nicholas Lemann writes:

"Like the establishment of sharecropping, the restoration to power of the all-white Democratic Party in the South was a development of such magnitude to whites that it became encrusted in legend; many towns have their own mythic stories of the redemption of the white South. In Clarksdale it is the story of the "race riot" of October 9, 1875."[4]

After the Reconstruction era and construction in 1879 of the Louisville, New Orleans and Texas Railway through the town, Clarksdale was incorporated in 1882. In 1886, the town's streets were laid out; it was not until 1913 that any were paved.[4]

African Americans composed most of the farm labor in the county into the 1940s, when increasing mechanization reduced the need for field workers and thousands of blacks had left Mississippi in the Great Migration to Chicago and later, West Coast cities. They developed a rich musical tradition drawing from many strands of music, and influencing jazz and the blues in Chicago.

The Great Migration

The movement of large numbers of people both to and from Clarksdale is prominent in the city's history. Prior to 1920, Delta plantations were in constant need of laborers, and many black families moved to the area to work as sharecroppers. After World War I, plantation owners even encouraged blacks to move from the other parts of Mississippi to the Delta region for work. By this time, Clarksdale had also become home to a multi-cultural mixture of Lebanese, Italian, Chinese and Jewish immigrant merchants. By 1920, the price of cotton had fallen, and many blacks living in the Delta began to leave. The Illinois Central Railroad operated a large depot in Clarksdale and provided a Chicago-bound route for those seeking greater economic opportunities in the north; it soon became the primary departure point for many.[4]

During the 1940s, three events occurred which increased the exodus of African-Americans from Clarksdale. First, it became possible to commercially produce a cotton crop entirely by machine, which lessened the need for a large, low-paid workforce. (Coincidentally, it was on 28 acres of the nearby Hopson Plantation where the International Harvester Company perfected the single-row mechanical cotton picking machine in 1946; soil was prepared, seeded, picked and bailed entirely by machines, while weeds were eradicated by flame.)[6] Second, many African American GIs returned from World War II to find slim opportunities for employment in the Delta region. Finally, there appeared an accelerated climate of racial hatred, as evidenced by the violence against such figures as NAACP representative Aaron Henry.

Ground Zero Blues Club.

Recent history

Clarksdale was active in the civil rights movement, and on May 29, 1958, [7][8]

National headlines in February 2013 covered the discovery of mayoral candidate Marco McMillian, who was found murdered near the town of Sherard, to the west of his home town of Clarksdale. Because McMillian was openly gay, and was badly beaten before his death, there was speculation that his murder qualified to be classified as a hate crime. Lawrence Reed, an acquaintance of McMillian, was charged, tried, and found guilty of the murder in April 2015.[9]

Geography

Former Yazoo & Mississippi Valley/Illinois Central Passenger Depot in Clarksdale, early 1900s. This building is now home to the Delta Blues Museum.

Clarksdale is located at (34.197888, -90.571941),[10] on the banks of the Sunflower River in the heart of the Mississippi Delta.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.9 square miles (36 km2), of which 13.8 square miles (36 km2) is land and 0.07% is water.

Demographics

As of the 2010 United States Census, There were 17,962 people residing in the city. 79.0% were African American, 19.5% White, 0.1% Asian, 0.6% Native American, 0.4% of some other race, and 0.5% from two or more races. 0.9% were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

As of the census[14] of 2000, there were 20,645 people, 7,233 households, and 5,070 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,491.8 people per square mile (575.9/km²). There were 7,757 housing units at an average density of 560.5 per square mile (216.4/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 68.52% African American, 29.95% White, 0.58% Asian, 0.11% Native American, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.22% from other races, and 0.60% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.65% of the population.

There were 7,233 households out of which 36.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.7% were married couples living together, 30.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.9% were non-families. 27.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.77 and the average family size was 3.38.

In the city, the population was spread out with 32.9% under the age of 18, 14.6% from 18 to 24, 25.2% from 25 to 44, 16.3% from 45 to 64, and 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females there were 89.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $20,188, and the median income for a family was $22,592. Males had a median income of $23,881 versus $18,918 for females. The per capita income for the city was $11,611. About 32.7% of families and 39.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 46.1% of those under age 18 and 31.4% of those age 65 or over.

Education

Community colleges

Coahoma Community College is north of Clarksdale.

Public schools

The city of Clarksdale is served by the Clarksdale Municipal School District. The district has nine schools with a total enrollment of 3,600 students. During the 1960s, the Clarksdale gained notoriety for being the first school district in the state of Mississippi to achieve SACS accreditation for both black and white schools, beginning the desegregation process in its schools.[15]

Coahoma Agricultural High School, a non-district public high school in unincorporated Coahoma County, is located on the campus of Coahoma Community College,[16] approximately 4.5 miles (7.2 km) north of Clarksdale.[17]

Private schools

The city is home to four private schools[18]

  • Lee Academy
  • Presbyterian Day School
  • St. Elizabeth's Elementary School
  • St. George's Episcopal Day School (Closed in May 2011)[19]

Media

Newspapers

  • The Clarksdale Press-Register

Radio stations

Music history

The crossroads where legend has it blues guitarist Robert Johnson sold his soul to the devil.

Clarksdale has been historically significant in the history of the blues. The Mississippi Blues Trail places interpretative markers for historic sites such as Clarksdale's Riverside Hotel, where Bessie Smith died following an auto accident on Highway 61. The Riverside Hotel is just one of many historical blues sites in Clarksdale.[20] Early supporters of the effort to preserve Clarksdale's musical legacy included the award-winning photographer and journalist Panny Mayfield, Living Blues magazine founder Jim O'Neal, and attorney Walter Thompson, father of sports journalist Wright Thompson. In 1995, Mt. Zion Memorial Fund founder Skip Henderson, a vintage guitar dealer from New Brunswick, New Jersey and friend of Delta Blues Museum founder Sid Graves, purchased the Illinois Central Railroad passenger depot to save it from planned demolition. With the help of local businessman Jon Levingston, as well as the Delta Council, Henderson received a $1.279 million grant from the federal government to restore the passenger depot. These redevelopment funds were then transferred on the advice of Clarksdale's City attorney, Hunter Twiford, to Coahoma County, in order to establish a tourism locale termed "Blues Alley", after a phrase coined by then Mayor, Henry Espy. The popularity of the Delta Blues Museum and the growth of the Sunflower River Blues Festival and Juke Joint Festivals has provided an economic boost to the city.

Delta Blues Museum

Delta Blues Museum

In late 1979 Carnegie Public Library Director Sid Graves began a nascent display series which later became the nucleus of the Delta Blues Museum.[21] Graves single-handedly nurtured the beginnings of the museum in the face of an indifferent community and an often recalcitrant Library Board, at times resorting to storing displays in the trunk of his car when denied space in the library. When the fledgling museum was accidentally discovered by Billy Gibbons of the rock band ZZ Top through contact with Howard Stovall Jr., the Delta Blues Museum became the subject of national attention as a pet project of the band, and the Museum began to enjoy national recognition.

In 1995 the museum, at that time Clarksdale's only attraction, grew to include a large section of the newly renovated library building, but remained under the tight control of the Carnegie Library Board, who subsequently fired Sid Graves, at the time seriously ill. Graves died in Hattiesburg, Mississippi, in January 2005. In an interim move from the renovated Library building, the Museum spent most of 1996 in a converted retail storefront on Delta Avenue under the direction of a politically connected former Wisconsin native, the late Ron Gorsegner. In 1997-1998 Coahoma County would finally provide funds to form a separate Museum Board of Directors composed mainly of socially prominent, local white blues fans, and to renovate the adjoining Illinois Central Railroad freight depot, providing a permanent home for the Delta Blues Museum.

Mississippi Blues Trail markers

A Blues Trail marker at the WROX building in Clarksdale.[22] The site is also list on the National Register of Historic Places.[23]

Several Mississippi Blues Trail markers are located in Clarksdale.

One is located on Stovall Road at a cabin believed to have been lived in by famed bluesman McKinley Morganfield, also known as Muddy Waters. Morganfield supposedly lived there from 1915 until 1943 while he worked on the large Stovall cotton plantation before moving to Chicago after mistreatment at the hands of a Stovall overseer.

Another Blues Trail marker is located at the Riverside Hotel, which provided lodging to blues entertainers passing through the delta.[24][25]

In 2009, a marker devoted to Clarksdale native Sam Cooke was unveiled in front of the New Roxy Theater.

Clarksdale in popular culture

Jimmy Page and Robert Plant named their 1998 album Walking Into Clarksdale as a tribute to the significance that Clarksdale made in the history of the Delta Blues.

Notable people

Born in Clarksdale

Lived or worked in Clarksdale

See also

References

  1. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011. 
  2. ^ "Clarksdale History". The Clark House. 2010. 
  3. ^ Blake, Tom (2001). "Coahoma County, Mississippi: Largest Slaveholders from 1860 Slave Census Schedules". Ancestry.com. 
  4. ^ a b c d Lemann, Nicholas (1991). The Promised Land: The Great Black Migration and How It Changed America. Alfred A. Knopf. 
  5. ^ W.E.B. DuBois,Black Reconstruction in America, 1860–1880. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1935; reprint New York: The Free Press, 1998, p.437
  6. ^ Ratliff, Bob. "Modern Cotton Production Has Deep Delta Roots" ( 
  7. ^ Dittmer, John (July 1997). "Dr. Aaron Henry:Mississippi Freedom Fighter". New Crisis: 26. 
  8. ^ Arsenault, Raymond (2006). Freedom Riders: 1961 and the Struggle for Racial Justice. Oxford. 
  9. ^ "Guilty Verdict Reached in Marco McMillian Murder Trial". WMC Action News 5. March 12, 2015. 
  10. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990".  
  11. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Retrieved June 4, 2015. 
  12. ^  
  13. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012". Retrieved September 24, 2014. 
  14. ^ "American FactFinder".  
  15. ^ Hornbuckle, Brian K. "Desegregation: How It Happened in Clarksdale, Mississippi" (PDF).  
  16. ^ "campus.jpg." Coahoma Agricultural High School. Retrieved on October 10, 2010.
  17. ^ "School History." Coahoma Agricultural High School. Retrieved on October 10, 2010.
  18. ^ "Clarksdale Directory: School Directory". Clarksdale Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved September 5, 2009. 
  19. ^ "Decreased enrollment forcing doors closed at St. George’s". The Clarksdale Press Register. April 13, 2011. 
  20. ^ "Clarkesdale Blues". roadfan.com. Retrieved February 9, 2007. 
  21. ^ Robbert Palmer (April 23, 1988). "Muddy Waters's Imprint on Mississippi". The New York Times. Retrieved October 4, 2009. 
  22. ^ "WROX - Clarksdale". Mississippi Blues Commission. Retrieved November 2014. 
  23. ^ "Mississippi - Coahoma County". American Dreams. Retrieved November 2014. 
  24. ^ Cloues, Kacey. "Great Souther Getaways – Mississippi" (PDF). www.atlantamagazine.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 25, 2008. Retrieved May 31, 2008. 
  25. ^ "Mississippi Blues Commission – Blues Trail". www.msbluestrail.org. Retrieved May 28, 2008. 
  26. ^ Steve Cheseborough (2008). Blues Traveling: The Holy Sites of Delta Blues. Univ. Press of Mississippi. p. 92.  
  27. ^ "Seelig Bartel "Bushie" Wise, September 7, 2004".  

Further reading

  • Francoise N. Hamlin. Crossroads at Clarksdale: The Black Freedom Struggle in the Mississippi Delta After World War II (University of North Carolina Press; 2012) 371 pages.

External links

  • City of Clarksdale
  • Clarksdale Chamber of Commerce
  • Annual Juke Joint Festival
  • Delta Blues Museum in Clarksdale
  • Clarksdale Press Register website
  • History of Clarksdale's Jewish community from the Institute of Southern Jewish Life
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