World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Cursus

Article Id: WHEBN0000656177
Reproduction Date:

Title: Cursus  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Henge, Neolithic Europe, Thornborough Henges, History of architecture, Tisza culture
Collection: Monument Types, Stone Age Britain
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Cursus

Stonehenge Cursus, Wiltshire
Dorset Cursus terminal on Thickthorn Down, Dorset

Cursus (plural 'cursūs' or 'cursuses') was a name given by early British archaeologists such as William Stukeley to the large parallel lengths of banks with external ditches which they thought were early Roman athletic courses, hence the Latin name cursus, meaning "course". Cursus monuments are now understood to be Neolithic structures and represent some of the oldest prehistoric monumental structures of the British Isles.[1] Relics found within them show that they were built between 3400 and 3000 BC. Over fifty have been identified via aerial photography while many others have doubtless been obliterated by farming and other subsequent landscaping activities.[2]

They range in length from 50 yards to almost 6 miles and the distance between the parallel earthworks can be up to 100 yards. Banks at the terminal ends enclose the cursus.

Contemporary internal features are rare and it has been traditionally thought that the cursuses were used as processional routes. They are often aligned on and respect the position of pre-existing long barrows and bank barrows and appear to ignore difficulties in terrain. The Dorset Cursus, the longest known example, crosses a river and three valleys along its course across Cranborne Chase and is close to the henge monuments at Knowlton. It has been conjectured that they were used in rituals connected with ancestor worship, that they follow astronomical alignments or that they served as buffer zones between ceremonial and occupation landscapes. More recent studies have reassessed the original interpretation and argued that they were in fact used for ceremonial competitions. Finds of arrowheads at the terminal ends suggest archery and hunting were important to the builders and that the length of the cursus may have reflected its use as a proving ground for young men involving a journey to adulthood. Anthropological parallels exist for this interpretation.

Examples include the four cursuses at Rudston in Yorkshire, that at Fornham All Saints in Suffolk, the Cleaven Dyke in Perthshire and the Dorset cursus.[3] A notable example is the Stonehenge Cursus, within sight of the more famous stone circle, on land belonging to The National Trust's Stonehenge Landscape.

Contents

  • Identification by aerial photography 1
  • See also 2
  • Line notes 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Identification by aerial photography

Numerous examples of cursus are known and the discipline of aerial archaeology is the most effective method of identifying such large features following thousands of years of weathering and plough damage.[4] Some cursus have only been identified through a first sighting of cropmarks visible from aerial reconnaissance; for example, the cropmarks at Fetteresso were the first indication of a cursus at that location in Aberdeenshire, Scotland.[5]

See also

Line notes

  1. ^ McOmish, 1999
  2. ^ Peter James and Nick Thorpe (November 1999) "Ancient Mysteries", p,316-9.
  3. ^ Champion, 2005
  4. ^ English Heritage
  5. ^ Hogan, 2008

References

  • Jim Champion, "The Enigmatic Cursus", Megalithic Portal, 23 April 2005, ed. A. Burnham
  • C. Michael Hogan (2008) "Fetteresso Fieldnotes", The Modern Antiquarian
  • David McOmish, "Cursus: solving a 6,000-year-old puzzle", British Archaeology, Issue no 69, March 2003, editor Simon Denison ISSN 1357-4442
  • English Heritage: Cursus
  • Gerald S. Hawkins (with John B. White), Stonehenge Decoded Doubleday & Co Inc, Garden City, New York (1965)

External links

  • , British ArchaeologySeeing the cursus as a symbolic riverKenneth Brophy,
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Fair are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.