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Gasoline usage and pricing

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Gasoline usage and pricing

This article is about gasoline and diesel usage and pricing around the world. For a chronology of oil prices during this time, see World oil market chronology from 2003. For information on the price of oil, see price of petroleum. For information on the price of Natural Gas, see Natural gas prices. For the Bloc Party song, see Silent Alarm.


The usage and pricing of gasoline (or petrol) results from factors such as crude oil prices, processing and distribution costs, local demand, the strength of local currencies, local taxation, and the availability of local sources of gasoline (supply). Since fuels are traded worldwide, the trade prices are similar. The price paid by consumers largely reflects national pricing policy. Some regions, such as Europe and Japan, impose high taxes on gasoline (petrol); others, such as Saudi Arabia and Venezuela, subsidize the cost.[1] Western countries have among the highest usage rates per person. The largest consumer is the United States, which used an average of 368 million US gallons (1.46 gigalitres) each day in 2011.[2]

Fuel prices in the United States

US petroleum consumption reached an estimated 18.87 million barrels per day (3,000,000 m3/d) in 2011, and is expected to increase to 18.96 million barrels per day (3,014,000 m3/d) per day in 2012. Drivers in the United States traveled 500,000 miles (800,000 km) per day in 2011, and were expected to travel 8.158 billion miles (1.3129×1010 km) per day in 2012. This equates to an average of 33 miles (53 km) per vehicle per day. On average, US drivers consume 1.49 US gallons (5.6 L) of gasoline per day, or about 10.44 US gallons (39.5 L) per week.[2] As of March 2013, the average price for 87 octane gasoline was $3.22 a US gallon (85¢/L). This price represented a 28 percent increase over a period of just 2 months and a 52 percent increase since the end of January.[3]

Small businesses are starting to have to pay more for gasoline. Just a couple of weeks ago, oil reached an all-time high of $111 per barrel ($700/m3). According to AAA, the national average for a gallon of gasoline is now a record $3.33 (88¢/L). Small businesses are being impacted by these changes of rising gasoline prices.[4]

"One cited spending $47,000 in 2005 on gas and oil for a fleet of 16 trucks. In 2006, that number was up to $62,000 and then again up to $70,000 in 2007. This year they are on track to spend $88,000 after budgeting only $66,000. Rising gas prices will siphon $22,000 off their bottom line unless they can find a way to pass that increase along." [4] This is an odd manner of thinking, given that they budgeted less for fuel than it cost in 2007, despite its cost rising, calling to question their ability to make sound financial decisions.

In 2008 a report by Cambridge Energy Research Associates stated that 2007 had been the year of peak gasoline usage in the United States, and that record energy prices would cause an "enduring shift" in energy consumption practices.[5] According to the report, in April fuel consumption had been lower than a year before for the sixth straight month, suggesting 2008 would be the first year US usage declined in 17 years. The total annual distance driven in the US began declining in 2006.[6]

The average price per US gallon in 2012 (as of 31 December 2012) was $3.618 (96¢/L), the highest ever for a year. As of 31 December 2012, the average price of gasoline was $3.298/gal (87¢/L), with New York at $3.70/gal (98¢/L) for the highest in the US, and Colorado at $2.987/gal (79¢/L) for the lowest.[7]

Finished motor gasoline amounts to 44% of the total US consumption of petroleum products.[8] This corresponds to 18.5 exajoules per year. As of 2012 the cost of crude oil accounted for 62% of the cost of a gallon of gasoline in the United State while refining accounted for just 12%. Taxes and distribution/marketing accounted for 12% and 14% respectively.[9]

After Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita, gas prices started rising. They became record high levels. In terms of the aggregate economy, increases in crude oil prices significantly predict the growth of real gross domestic product (GDP), but increases in natural gas prices do not.[10]

All the damages from the hurricanes ran up gas prices. By 30 August, a day after Katrina’s landfall, prices in the spot market, which typically include a premium above the wellhead price, had surged pass $11 per gigajoule ($12 per million British thermal units), and by 22 September 2005, the day before Rita’s landfall, the spot price had risen to $14/GJ ($15 per million BTU).[10]

Crude Oil

Crude oil is the greatest contributing factor when it comes to the price of gasoline. This includes the resources it takes for exploration, to remove it from the ground, and transport it. Between 2004 and 2008, there was an increase in fuel costs due in large part to a worldwide increase in demand for crude oil. Prices leapt from 35 to $140 per barrel ($220 to $880/m3), causing a corresponding increase in gas prices.[11] On the supply side, OPEC (or the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) has a great deal to do with the price of gasoline, both in the United States and around the world. The speculation of oil commodities can also affect the gasoline market.

Taxes

Taxes are the next biggest contributor to gasoline prices at around 12%. In the United States, both state and federal taxes apply to gasoline. In addition other taxes may be placed on gas including applicable state sales taxes, gross receipts taxes, oil inspection fees, underground storage tank fees and other miscellaneous environmental fees.

Marketing and Distribution

Distribution and marketing makes up the remaining 5%. The price of transporting crude oil to a refinery then gasoline to a point of distribution is passed on to the consumer. In addition the price to market the fuel brand is passed on.

Other Factors

Aside from this breakdown, many other factors affect gasoline prices. Extreme weather, war or natural disaster in areas where oil is produced can also in turn raise the price of a gallon of gasoline. Legislation by several states for cleaner burning fuel also affects certain areas' prices of gasoline. Furthermore, demand directly affects the price of gasoline. For example, when more people are on the road, typically in the summer months or during holidays, the price will increase.

A "real time" price of petrol at points of distribution is posted and publicly updated at: http://www.gasbuddy.com/GB_Price_List.aspx

Petrol usage and pricing in Europe

Most European countries have high fuel taxes. The prices have traditionally been three to four times the price in the United States, with prices during 2000–2005 of €1.00/litre[12] (about US$1.42/L or $5.40/US gallon) while the US had prices around $1.50/gal or $0.40/L. After a large increase until the summer of 2008, the end of 2008 experienced a strong decline linked with a sharp economic downturn, with the average price of fuel in the US at $1.613/gal (29 December 2008). However, the price of fuel in Europe is still more than double the US price at €1.85/litre.[13] Russia and some neighboring countries have a much smaller tax, with fuel prices similar to the US.[1]

Competitive petrol pricing in the UK is led by supermarkets with their own forecourts. Generally each supermarket tends to match the other's prices; the lead players being Asda, Tesco, Sainsbury's and Morrison's. In recent years the AA has criticized the speculators as being the prime reason for fuel fluctuations in the UK.[14]

Countries with subsidised gasoline

A number of countries subsidize the cost of petrol/gasoline and other petroleum products. Subsidies make transport of people and goods cheaper, but discourage fuel efficiency. In some countries, the soaring cost of crude oil since 2003 has led to these subsidies being cut, moving inflation from the government debt to the general populace, sometimes resulting in political unrest.

Fuel subsidies are common in oil-rich countries. Venezuela, which has vast oil reserves, maintains a fixed price of Bs.F 0.097 per litre (around US$0.08 per gallon), and has done so since 1998, thus making it the nation with the lowest gasoline and diesel prices in the world.[15] Other countries with subsidized fuel include United States of America, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Egypt, Burma, Malaysia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Trinidad and Tobago, Brunei and Bolivia.

In February 2010, the Iranian government implemented an energy price reform by which the energy subsidies were to be removed in five years; the most important price hike was in gasoline, as the price went up from 100 rials ($0.10 US) to 400 rials ($0.40 US) per litre, with a ration of 100 litres per month for private passenger cars (later reduced to 60 litres per month).

On 26 December 2010 the Bolivian government issued a decree removing subsidies which had fixed petrol/gasoline and diesel prices for the past seven years. Arguing that illegal export (contraband) to neighboring countries was harming the economy, Bolivia eliminated the subsidies and raised gas prices as much as 83%. After widespread labor strikes, the Bolivian government canceled all planned price hikes.[16]

United States of America

The oil industry receives subsides through the United States tax code, which include Percentage Depletion Allowance, Domestic Manufacturing Tax Deduction, the Foreign Tax Credit and Expensing Intangible Drilling Costs. It is estimated that these tax deductions are worth $4 billion annually and are currently being debated by the government for reform. Although such subsidies exist, the sale of fuel is also taxed at rates that generally exceed the sales tax rates for other goods. It is thus unclear whether the tax impact on fuel is a net subsidy or not.

Iran

The Iranian government introduced an energy price reform in February 2010. The reform was brought forward by the government and approved with some changes by the parliament. The major aim of the policy was to slow down the increasing trend of energy consumption in Iran by removing the energy subsidies. The plan included electricity, natural gas, gasoline, and diesel subsidies. According to the plan, all energy prices were to increase by 20 percent annually. The price reform was particularly important in gasoline, as consumption had been increasing dramatically creating a huge burden on government budget. Furthermore, to meet demand, Iran had to import gasoline from other countries, which made the country vulnerable to possible sanctions by the US and European countries. The gas price prior to reform was $0.10 US per liter with the quota of 100 liters per month per passenger car. The reform raised the price to $0.40 US per liter and later reduced the ration to 60 liters per month. The price for over-quota consumption and the imported cars were $0.70 US per liter. The energy price reform included a cash-rebate program through which each person received 450,000 rials ($45 US) per month from the government. The overall consumption of gasoline after the reform decreased from about 65 million liters per day to about 54 million liters per day.[17]

Turkey

Turkey has the highest gasoline and diesel prices in the world due to high taxes and profit margins in the country in addition to soaring oil prices, new energy data has revealed on 29 September 2012. Around that date, the price of a liter of gasoline in Turkey reached $2.6 and diesel $2.4, according to International Energy Agency (IEA) data. With the recent price hikes in 2012, gas and diesel prices hit TL 4.92 ($2.71 per liter) and TL 4.81, respectively. The share of taxes in gas prices in the Turkish market is 72 percent, while by comparison it is 62 percent in Germany, 57 percent in Italy, 60 percent in Japan, 25 percent in Canada, and 12 percent in the USA. On July 8, 2013 there was another price hike which raised pricing to $9.98 per US gallon.

Nigeria

On 1 January 2012 the Nigerian Government headed by president Goodluck Ebele Jonathan, tried to cease the subsidy on petrol and deregulate the oil prices by announcing the new price for petrol as USD 0.88/litre from the old subsidised price of USD 0.406/litre (LAGOS), which in areas distant from Lagos petrol was priced at USD 1.25/litre. This led to the longest general strike (eight days), riots, Arab spring like protests and on 16/1/2012 the government capitulated by announcing a new price of USD 0.60/litre with an envisaged price of USD 2.0/litre in distant areas. The situation is still fluid.[18]

Indonesia

In March 2005 Indonesia increased the price of gasoline and diesel by 29%, causing widespread protests. The price of gasoline was raised from Rp 1,800 (US$0.20) per litre to Rp 2,400 (US$0.25) per litre, while diesel rose from Rp 1,650 (US$0.18) to Rp 2,100 (US$0.23). Prices were increased again in October to Rp 4,500 (US$0.48) a litre, an 87.5% rise, for gasoline, while diesel was increased to Rp 4,300 (US$0.46), and kerosene, used for cooking, increased from Rp 700 (US$0.08) to Rp 2,000 (US$0.22) per litre. The price increases came as oil prices threatened to increase the government's oil subsidy to US$14 billion per year, and caused further protests.

With oil reaching over US$145 a barrel, Indonesia further increased prices on 24 May 2008 to Rp 6,000 (approx. US$0.65) per litre, and diesel to Rp 5,500 (approx. US$0.60) per litre, while kerosene was raised to Rp 2,500 (approx. US$0.28), moves which caused widespread protests.[19] In addition, it was suggested that private car owners, who are wealthy in Indonesian terms, would eventually be excluded from subsidies entirely, with the cheap fuel limited to public transport and motorcycles.

In June 2013, the government raised the price of low-octane gasoline 44% to 6,500 rupiah ($0.66) per liter and of diesel 22% to 5,500 rupiah per liter to help close a widening budget deficit. The move caused violent protest in some areas.

People have been encouraged to switch to LPG for cooking, as Indonesia is the world's largest exporter, whereas its oil industry is in decline, and it is now a net importer.

Malaysia

Malaysia spends US$14 billion subsidising gasoline, diesel and gas each year.[20] Effective 5 June 2008 gasoline prices increased by 40% to RM2.70/litre (US$3.30 a gallon), from RM1.92/litre (US$2.32 a gallon). Diesel prices rose by RM1.00/litre to RM2.58 (US$3.04 per gallon), a 158% increase. It was announced that price increases were planned to bring fuel prices in line with global market cost, suggesting that it may hit US$3.80 per gallon by August. The Malaysian government has also announced a one-off cash rebate of RM625 per year to Malaysian citizens who own cars with an engine capacity of 3,000 cc or less and RM200 tax rebate to cars with an engine capacity of 3,000 cc and above to offset the increased costs.[21] The government introduced a temporary ban on buying fuel within 50 km of the country border, but the ban was suspended following a price increase on 7 June 2008 for petrol of 41% (to MYR2.70 a litre) and for diesel of 63% (to MYR2.58).[22]

On 22 June 2008 the Malaysian government announced plans to set up separate pumps at its border petrol stations to sell fuel to foreigners at market rates so that only locals can benefit from subsidised petrol. The new pumps will target Singaporeans and Thais who make day trips across the border to fill their tanks with cheaper fuel there, although Singapore-registered cars must have their tanks at least ¾ full before they will be permitted to leave Singapore in any case. Petrol stations within 50 km (31 mi) of the country's northern border with Thailand and southern border with Singapore would be affected.[23] Recently, the fuel price has dropped until MYR 2.45 and it has dropped for the second time. A further reduction was made on 1 November 2008. RON97 petrol was reduced from RM2.30 a litre to RM2.15 a litre, RON92 petrol from RM2.20 a litre to RM2.05 a litre and diesel from RM2.20 a litre to RM2.05 a litre. The Government revealed that it had ceased subsidizing petrol as of 1 November 2008 when the price of oil dipped below US$65 per barrel. However subsidies were still being paid for diesel and natural gas.[24]

On 18 November 2008 the Malaysian government made further reductions in the price of gasoline cut pump prices by seven per cent to RM2.00 ringgit per litre and diesel by 15 sen to RM1.90 per litre. The government said that at current prices they were making about 30 sen per litre in sales. Then again on December 3, petrol prices were reduce further. Gasoline prices were reduced 10 sen to RM 1.90 per litre and as for diesel, they were reduced 10 sen to RM 1.80 per litre.[25] On 16 December 2008 the price of RON97 petrol is was reduced further to RM1.80, while RON92 is selling at RM1.70 a litre. The pump price of diesel was reduced to RM1.70 a litre.[26]

From 1 September 2009 however, the price for RON97 increased to RM2.05, while RON92 has been discontinued and replaced with RON95, at a price of RM1.80.[27] On 16 July 2010, petrol prices across the board was raised by 5 sen, which brought the prices of RON95, RON97 and diesel to RM1.85, RM2.10 and RM1.75 per litre respectively. Since then, RON97 floats with government controlled revision reflecting the global crude oil prices. As of 1 August 2010 only Malaysian-registered petrol vehicles may purchase RON95 fuel; foreign-registered vehicles (mainly from Singapore and Thailand) by law can only purchase RON97 (or diesel) at Malaysian service stations.

On 1 April 2011 RON97 increased from RM2.50 to RM2.70. In May 2011, RON97 further increased to RM2.90, another record high for RON97 in Malaysia. A drop of RM0.10 in June 2011 brings it to RM2.80 per litre, the first price reduction since RON97 was floated at market rates.

On 3 September 2013 due to Malaysian economy feels economic downturn, PM Najib decided to increase the price for RON97 from RM2.70 to RM2.85, RON 95 from RM1.90 to RM2.10 and Diesel from RM1.80 to RM2.00.[28][29]

Mexico

PEMEX, a government company in charge of selling oil in Mexico is subsidized by the Mexican government. This serves to quell inflationary pressures in Mexico. Mexico buys much of its gasoline and diesel from the United States and resells it at US$98 per barrel. Many residents of US border communities cross the border to buy fuel in Mexico,[30] thereby enjoying a cheaper fuel subsidy at the expense of Mexican taxpayers. This has caused supply shortages at a number of filling stations for Mexican drivers, especially truck and bus drivers who use diesel.[31]

Venezuela

Venezuelan state owned company PDVSA spends US$1.7 billion in direct costs of importation of gasoline, and subsidizes all sales of gasoline in the internal Venezuelan market. The sale price of gasoline is US$0.015 per liter, on a fixed price in the local currency that has been in effect since 1997. Given the low price of gasoline, it is distributed free of charge to gas stations.[32]

Vietnam

The domestic prices of 92-RON, the most commonly used grade of gasoline in Vietnam,is VND24,570 (US$1.16) a liter on July 17.[33]

Typical gasoline prices around the world

See fuel tax for tax information by country.

The Two week updates for European countries can be consulted at the website of the Touring Club Switzerland.

Up to date prices for gasoline (unleaded) are available at http://www.mytravelcost.com/petrol-prices/

Country/Territory US$/L
(95 RON)
US$/US gallon
(95 RON)
Local units Date of price Sources
Albania 1.44 5.45 ALL165/L (€1.18) (RON 95)
ALL160/L (€1.14) (Diesel)
Algeria 0.41 1.55 30DA/L 95 octane (rare down south)
regular 23DA/L
diesel DA14/L or US$0.2
[1]
Anguilla 1.45 5.49 EC$17.79/imperial gallon (regular) [2]
Antigua and Barbuda 0.84 3.18 EC$9.95/imperial gallon (regular)
EC$10.95/imperial gallon (diesel)
[3]
Andorra 1.64 6.21 €1.142/L (95)
€1.192/L (98)
€1.032/L (diesel)
tcs.ch [4]
Angola £0.37 per gallon 13 July 2011 Angola Gasoline Price
Argentina 0.92 3.48 ARS $3.25/L (95)
ARS $3.55/L (98)
ARS $3.05/L (diesel)
[5]
Aruba 1.10 4.16 Fl. 1.93/L [6]
Australia 1.51 5.72 A$1.434/L [7]
Austria (Vienna) 1.95 7.38 €1.491/L (95)
€1.633/L (98)
€1.446/L (diesel)
€0.991/Kg (CNG-Methane)
tcs.ch [8]
Azerbaijan 0.75 2.84 AZN 0.55/L (AI-92)
AZN 0.60/L (AI-95)
AZN 0.45/L (L-62 Diesel)
[9]
Bahamas 1.24 4.69 US$4.70/US gallon (reg) [10]
Bahrain 0.27 1.02 BHD 0.100/L (95 RON)
BHD 0.080/L (91 RON)
[11]
Barbados 1.59 6.02 Bd$3.17/L (reg)
Bd$2.79/L (diesel)
[12]
Belarus 1.07 4.1 Br3240/L (95)
Br2580/L (Diesel)
[13]
Belgium 2.23 8.44 €1.719/L (Eurosuper 95)
€1.759/L (Super Plus 98)
€1.538/L (Diesel)
€0.713/L (LPG)
[14]
Belize 1.40 5.30 BZ$10.18/US gallon (regular)
BZ$10.59/US gallon (premium)
BZ$10.24/US gallon (diesel)
[15]
Bermuda 1.80 6.81 BMD1.80/L (Super)
BMD1.60/L (Diesel)
[16]
Bolivia 0.54 2.04 B3.74/L (super)
B3.72/L (diesel)
[17]
Bonaire 1.34 5.07 USD 1.34/L (super)
USD 0.914/L (diesel)
[18]
Bosnia and Herzegovina 1.66 6.28 KM2.25/L (95)
KM2.30/L (diesel)
tcs.ch [19]
Brazil 1.35 5.11 R$2.98/L [20]
British Virgin Islands 1.32 5.00 US$4.99/US gallon (reg) [21]
Brunei 0.39 1.48 BR$0.53/L Brunei Press Sdn Bhd [22]
Bulgaria 1.72 6.51 BGN 2.57/L (95)
BGN 2.73/L (98)
BGN 2.62/L (diesel)
shofior.com [23]
Burma 1.06 4.01[34] K3100/imperial gallon (regular)
K3300/imperial gallon (diesel)
[24]
Cambodia 0.63 2.38 KhR2800/L
Canada 1.18 4.47 C$1.16/L [25]
Cape Verde 1.40 5.30 Esc103.7/L (gasoline)
Esc83.4/L (diesel)
[26]
Cayman Islands 1.03 3.90 KYD3.79/imperial gallon (regular)
KYD3.75/imperial gallon (diesel)
[27]
Chile 1.36 5.15 CLP 592/L [28]
China 1.06 4.01 RMB 6.46/L [29]
Colombia 1.09 4.13 COL$8000/US gallon (81 Octanos)
COL$9595/US gallon (87 Octanos)
[30]
Costa Rica 1.43 5.41 ¢718/L (super)
¢640/L (diesel)
[31]
Croatia 1.87 7.08 HRK 10.27/L (95)
HRK 10.59/L (98)
HRK 9.38/L (diesel)
Croenergo [32]
Cuba 1.24 4.69 CUC1.15/L (95)
CUC1.30/L (98)
CUC1.10/L (diesel)
[33]
Curaçao 1.13 4.28 ANG 2.0175/L (95 RON)
ANG 1.466/L (Diesel)
[34]
Cyprus 1.680 6.36 €1,282/L (95 RON)
€1.333/L (98)
€1,327/L (Diesel)
[35]
Czech Republic 1.85 7.00 CZK 35.50/L (95)
CZK 35.40/L (98)
CZK 35.00/L (diesel)
tcs.ch [36]
Denmark 2.35 8.90 DKK 13.52/L (€1.81) (95)
DKK 12.04/L (€1.61) (diesel)
OK [37]
Dominica 1.08 4.09 EC$13.19/imperial gallon (regular)
EC$13.12/imperial gallon (diesel)
[38]
Dominican Republic 1.62 6.13 RD$234.5/US gallon (regular)
RD$202.2/US gallon (diesel)
[39]
Ecuador 0.44 1.67 US$1.68/US gallon (super) [40]
Egypt 0.975 3.69 LE1.75/L <90 octane
LE1.85/L <92 octane
LE5.85/L <95 octane
LE1.1/L diesel ('solar')
[41]
El Salvador 0.85 3.22 US$3.21/US gallon (regular)
US$2.97/US gallon (diesel)
[42]
Eritrea 2.13 8.06 N32/L(petrol)
N12.6/L(diesel)
[43]
Estonia 1.82 6.89 €1.394/L (95 RON)
€1.434/L (98 RON)
€1.379/L (diesel)
http://www.viispluss.ee/
European Union (average prices) 2.05 7.76 €1.576/L (95 RON)
€1.473/L (diesel)
€0.99/Kg (CNG-Methane)
[44]

[45]

Finland 2.33 8.82 €1.601/L (98E RON)
€1.364/L (Diesel)
tcs.ch [46]
France 2.28 8.63 €1.585/L (95)
€1.468/L (diesel)
€1.226/Kg (CNG-Methane)
tcs.ch [47]
Germany 2.09 7.91 €1.65/L (Super E5, 95 RON)
€1.69/L (SuperPlus E5, 98 RON)
€1.61/L (Super E10, 95 RON)
€1.47/L (Diesel)
[48]
Greece 2.20 8.33 €1.786/L (unleaded)
€1.566/L (diesel)
tcs.ch [50]
Grenada 1.23 4.66 EC$15.12/imperial gallon (regular)
EC$15.43/imperial gallon (diesel)
[51]
Guadeloupe 1.36 5.15 €1.07/L (95) [52]
Guatemala 0.64 2.42 Q19.99/US gallon(regular)
Q16.79/US gallon(diesel)
[53]
Guyana 1.08 4.09 G$215.6/L (regular)
G$203.5/L (diesel)
[54]
Haiti 0.89 3.37 G134/US gallon (95)
G109/US gallon (diesel)
[55]
Honduras 0.87 3.29 L62.15/US gallon (regular)
L54.78/US gallon (diesel)
[56]
Hong Kong 2.24 8.48 HK$18.33/L (Super Unleaded, RON98)
HK$17.34/L (Unleaded, RON95)
HK$12.72/L (Diesel)
Shell Hong Kong/[57]
Hungary 2.14 8.10 HUF 415/L (95),
HUF 440/L (diesel)
HUF 350/L (E85)
HUF 221/L (LPG)
Holtankoljak [58]
Iceland 2.09 7.91 ISK 266/L (€1.57) (95)
ISK 265/L (€1.57) (diesel)
[59]
India - Mumbai 1.43 5.41 INR 78.58/L (Petrol)
INR 45.99/L (diesel)
INR 400/14.5 kg (Domestic LPG)
Indonesia 1.22 4.62 Rp 6500/L (subsidized)(RON 88)
Rp 9200/L (RON 92)
Rp 95300/L (RON 95)
Rp 35000 (RON 100)
Rp 5500/L (subsidized)(Diesel)
PT. Pertamina (Persero) [60]
Iran 0.57 2.16 7000 Rials/L petrol (4000 rationed)
3000 Rials/L diesel (1500 rationed)
The Petroenergy Information Network Of Iran/[61]
Iraq 0.38 1.44 ID 450/L (95 Octane)
ID 000/L (98 Octane)
ID 400/L (Diesel)
[62]
Ireland 2.15 8.14 €1.490/L (Unleaded 95)
€1.450/L (Diesel)
tcs.ch [63]
Israel 2.0501 7.76 ILS 8.25/L (95)
ILS 7.8/L (diesel)
Italy 2.31 8.74

€1.748/L (Eurosuper)
€1.907/L (98 RON)
€1.660/L (Diesel)
€1.774/L (Special_Diesel)
€0.768/L (LPG-autogas)
€0.989/Kg (CNG-Methane)
National average, does not include self-service discounts.

[64]
Italy - Livigno (tax free) 1.53 5.79 €1.084/L (95 Octane)
€0.963/L (Diesel)
[65]
Jamaica 1.16 4.39 J$99.31/L (90)
J$102.75/L (diesel)
[66]
Japan 1.84 6.97 ¥152.7/L The Oil Information Center Japan [67]
Jordan 1.3 4.92 JD 0.93/L Unleaded Octane 95 (US$1.31/L)
JD 0.765/L Unleaded Octane 90 (US$0.93/L)
D0.665/L (Diesel)
Kazakhstan 0.98 3.71 KZT145/L (unleaded 95)
KZT106/L (unleaded 92)
Kenya 1.16 4.4 Sh94/L (Super)
Sh87/L (Diesel)
[68]
Kuwait 0.224 0.85 KWD 0.060/L (91)
KWD 0.065/L (95)
KWD 0.090/L (98)
KNPC (fixed prices) [69]
Latvia 1.80 6.81 LVL 0.887/L (95)
LVL 0.902/L (diesel)
tcs.ch [70]
Liberia 1.07 4.05 L$280/US gallon
Libya 0.17 0.64 LD 0.2/L (95), LD 0.15/L (diesel)
Oct 2010: LD135 fuel tax at border for foreign vehicles
[71]
Lithuania 1.92 7.27 LTL 4.60/L (95)
LTL 4.74/L (diesel)
tcs.ch [72]
Luxembourg 1.83 6.93 EuroSuper 95 € 1.41/L
SuperPlus 98 € 1.423/L
Diesel € 1.272/L
tcs.ch [73]
Macedonia 1.71 6.47 MKD 78.5/L (€1.28) (RON 98)
MKD 77/L (€1.25) (RON 95)
MKD 65.5/L (€1.07) (Diesel)
tcs.ch [74]
Malaysia 0.61 2.31 MYR 2.85/L (RON97)
MYR 2.100/L (RON95)
MYR 2.00/L (Diesel)
[76]
Malta 1.61 6.1 €1.43/L (Super)
€1.33/L (Diesel)
[77]
Martinique 1.36 5.15 €1.07/L (95) [78]
Mauritania 0.94 3.6 UM265/L petrol
UM225/L diesel
Prices 10-20% more up north
[79]
Mexico (Mexico City) 0.77 2.91 MX$10.09/L(Magna 87)
MX$10.78/L(Premium 92)
Pemex [80]
Moldova 1.32 5.00 MDL 15.78/L (95)
MDL 15.07/L (diesel)
tcs.ch [81]
Monaco 1.87 7.08 €1.30/L(95)
€1.39/L(98)
€1.11/L(diesel)
[82]
Montenegro 1.93 7.31 €1.340/L (95)
€1.300/L (Diesel)
tcs.ch [83]
Montserrat 1.40 5.30 EC$17.19/imperial gallon (regular) [84]
Morocco 1.50 5.7 MAD 12.65/L (€1.50) (95)
MAD 8.65/L (€1.02) (Diesel)
Mozambique 0.77 2.91 MTn 23.1/L (regular)
MTn 22.45/L (diesel)
[85]
Netherlands 2.47 9.35 €1.887/L (Euro95)
€1.531/L (Diesel)
€1.949/L (Superplus)
[86]
New Zealand 1.81 6.85 NZ$2.199/L (91 octane)
NZ$2.279/L (95 octane)
NZ$1.569/L (diesel)
[87]
Nicaragua 0.96 3.63 C$19.98/L (premium)
C$17.26/L (diesel)
[88]
Nigeria (Lagos) 0.87 3.29 N141/L [89]
North Korea 0.77 2.91 KP? 111/L [90], estimated
Norway 2.56 9.69 NOK 14.89/L (95)
NOK 13.52/L (Diesel)
tcs.ch [91]
Oman 0.31 1.17 0.12 Rials/L (95 Octane) [92]
Pakistan 0.76 2.88 PKR 113.24/L (Unleaded Premium)
PKR 140.47/L (Unleaded-Hi Octane)
PKR 116.95/L (Diesel)
PKR 110.74/L (E10 Gasoline)
PKR 66.75 to 75.48/KG (CNG)
Oil and Gas Regulatory Authority [93]

Pakistan State Oil [94]

Palestine (West Bank) 2.04 7.72 NIS 6.95/L (95/diesel)
Panama 0.83 3.14 US$3.35/US gallon (95)
US$2.99/US gallon (diesel)
[95]
Peru (Lima) 1.62 6.13 PEN S/.16.00/US gallon (95 Octane)
S/.8.46/US gallon (diesel)
PSO/[96]
Philippines (Manila) 1.295 4.90 P 54.00/L Shell Philippines [97]
Poland 1.81 6.85 PLN 5.59/L (95)
PLN 5.67/L (diesel)
tcs.ch [98]
Portugal 2.08 7.87 €1.649/L (95)
€1.799/L (98)
€1.441/L (Diesel)
€0.844 (Autogas)
maisgasolina.com [99]
Portugal - Azores (tax free) 1.97 7.46 €1.370/L (95 Octane)
€1.430/L (98 Octane)
€1.190/L (Diesel)
tcs.ch [100]
Portugal - Madeira (tax free) 2.09 7.91 €1.454/L (95 Octane)
€1.594/L (98 Octane)
€1.312/L (Diesel)
tcs.ch [101]
Puerto Rico 0.96 3.63 $0.957/L (95)
$0.987/L (98)
$0.997/L (Diesel)
[102]
Qatar (Doha) 0.22 0.83 QAR 1.00/L (97 Octane)
QAR 0.85/L (90 Octane)
[103] / The General Secretariat for Development Planning - State of Qatar
Romania (Bucharest) 1.90 7.19 RON 6.20/L (95)
RON 6.24/L (diesel)
tcs.ch [104]
Russia (Moscow) 0.94 3.56 RUR 30.29/L (RON 98)
RUR 27.29/L (RON 95)
RUR 25.89/L (RON 92)
RUR 23.49/L (RON 80)
RUR 25.29/L (Winter diesel)
Russia (Kaliningrad) 0.91 3.44 RUR 25.3/L (diesel) [105]
Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Jeddah) 0.16 0.61 SAR 0.45/L (91 RON)
SAR 0.60/L (95 RON)
[106]

(fixed prices)

Serbia 1.92 7.27 EuroPremium 95 RSD 166.7/L (€1.46/L)
Premium 95 RSD 157.9/L (€1.39/L)
EuroDiesel RSD 161.4/L (€1.42)
Sierra Leone 1.05 3.97 Le4500/L [35]
Singapore 1.67 6.32 S$2.50/L (RON 98)
S$2.16/L (RON 95)
S$2.10/L (RON 92)
S$2.00/L (Diesel)
Singapore Petroleum Company [107]
Slovakia 1.98 7.50 €1.490/L (95 Natural)
€1.429/L (Diesel)
€0.695/L (LPG)
AAIreland.ie [108]
Slovenia 1.88 7.12 €1.412/L (95 Octane)
€1.428/L (100 Octane)
€1.302/L (Diesel)
tcs.ch [109]
South Africa 1.38 5.22 R13.00/L [110]
South Korea 1.81 6.85 KRW 2,043.61/L [111]
Spain 1.78 6.74 €1.33/L (95 RON)
€1.29/L (Diesel)
tcs.ch [112]
Spain - Canary Islands (tax free) 1.43 5.41 €0.99/L (95 RON)
€0.91/L (Diesel)
tcs.ch [113]
Sri Lanka 1.46 5.53 LKR 167/L (95 Octane)
LKR 149/L (90 Octane)
LKR 115/L (Diesel)
[36][37]
St Kitts and Nevis 1.40 5.30 EC$17.20/imperial gallon (regular) [114]
St Lucia 1.00 3.79 EC$2.70/L (regular)
EC$2.66/L (diesel)
[115]
St Vincent and the Grenadines 1.11 4.20 EC$13.60/imperial gallon (regular) [116]
Suriname 1.55 5.87 SR$5/L [117]
Sweden 2.1 7.95 SEK 14.53/L (95),
SEK 14.90/L (98),
SEK 14.24/L (diesel)
tcs.ch [118]
Switzerland 2.09 7.91 CHF 1.81/L (Bleifrei 95)
CHF 1.87/L (Super Plus 98)
CHF 1.94/L (diesel)
tcs.ch [119]
Switzerland - Samnaun (tax free) 1.68 6.36 CHF 1.50/L (RON 95)
CHF 1.49/L (€1.05/L) (Diesel)
Service station [120]
Syria 0.8333 3.15 SY 50 pound/L (unleaded)
SY 15 pound/L (Diesel)
Taiwan 1.2034 4.56 NT$34.0/L (92 unleaded)
NT$35.5/L (95 unleaded)
NT$37.5/L (98 unleaded)
[121]
Togo 1.22 4.62 CFA567/L (regular)
CFA599/L (diesel)
[122]
Thailand 1.42 (RON 91)
1.22 (Gasohol 95-E10)
5.38 (RON 91)
4.61 (Gasohol 95-E10)
฿37.38/L (Gasohol 95-E10)
฿43.75/L (RON 91), ฿35.38/L (Gasohol 91-E10)
฿32.19/L (Diesel)
PTT Thailand [123]
Trinidad and Tobago 0.64 2.42 TT$2.70/L (92)
TT$5.75/L (95)
TT$1.50/L (diesel)
[124]
Tunisia 0.99 3.75 TND 1.27/L (€0.67) (95 RON)
TND 0.91/L (€0.48) (Diesel)
[125]
Turks and Caicos 1.46 5.53 US$5.529/US gallon (super)
US$5.469/US gallon (diesel)
[126]
Turkey 2.72 10.30 TL 4.90/L (95 RON)
TL 4.36/L (Diesel)
[127]
Turkmenistan 0.19 0.72 TMN 0.54 /L

I -

[128]
UAE 0.498 1.89 AED 1.72/L (95 Octane)
AED 1.83/L (98 Octane)
AED 2.60/L (Diesel)
[130]
Ukraine 1.24 4.69 UAH 9.90/L (95 Octane)
UAH 9.50/L (diesel)
tcs.ch [131]
United Kingdom 2.28 8.63 £1.41/L (Unleaded)
£1.49/L (Super)
£1.48/L (Diesel)
Petrolprices.com [132]
United States 1.024 3.88 $3.49/US gallon
$4.01/US gallon (diesel)
[133]
Uruguay (Montevideo) 1.52 5.75 U$ 29.7/L [134]
Uzbekistan 1.07 4.05 UZ SUM 1755/L (95) [135]
Venezuela 0.015 (95)
0.011 (91)
0.008 (diesel)
0.057 (95)
0.041 (91)
0.028 (diesel)
BsF. 0.097/L (95)
BsF. 0.070/L (91)
BsF. 0.048/L (diesel)
[136] (fixed prices 6.30BsF/$ 2013) (at "non-essential" exch. rate)
Vietnam 1.11 4.20 VND 25,070/L (RON 95)
VND 24,570/L (RON 92)
VND 22,310/L (Diesel)
Petrolimex [137]
Yemen 0.73 2.76 150 Rials/L (diesel) [138]
Zambia 1.61 6.09 ZK7639/L (Gasoline) [139]

Protests

India

Wide protests on petrol price hikes have been frequent in the last 4–5 years. On 24 May 2012 the petrol price was hiked by INR 7.50, resulting prices in the range of INR 73 - 82 all over the country.[38] Opposition had declared a bandh on 31 May 2012 across the country to protest against the price hike,[39] which evoked mixed response, amid incidents of stone pelting, arson and road blockades in some parts of the country.[40][41]

References

  • Petrol Prices in India http://www.publicinfopath.com/petrolprice/

See also

  • Automobile costs

External links

United States

  • Baker Institute For Public Policy
  • FAQs about gas prices at FuelEconomy.gov by the US Dept. of Energy
  • Factors affecting gas prices (US Dept. of Energy)
  • United States Government Accountability Office
  • AAA's Daily Fuel Gauge Report
  • US EIA Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Report US Energy Information Administration
  • Current Gas Prices in the US
  • Recent historical gas prices in the US at GasBuddy.com
  • 2012 NACS Retail Fuels Report

International

  • European Market Observatory Official EU statistics on Gasoline and Diesel prices
  • Global Fuel Price Comparison UK petrol prices compared to other countries showing contributing factors.
  • Conde Nast Portfolio
  • GTZ International Fuel Prices 2009
  • Gasoline Prices Brazil
  • EU Fuel Prices Fuel prices in EU countries. Fuel prices with and without taxes & duties.
  • Current Gas Prices Germany, EU, International
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