Human Development Index

World map indicating the category of Human Development Index by country (based on 2013 data; published July 24, 2014).

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. The HDI was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq, is anchored in the Indian Nobel laureate Amartya Sen’s work on human capabilities, often framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in their life,[1] and was published by the United Nations Development Programme.[2]

The 2010 Human Development Report introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI). While the simple HDI remains useful, it stated that "the IHDI is the actual level of human development (accounting for inequality)," and "the HDI can be viewed as an index of 'potential' human development (or the maximum IHDI that could be achieved if there were no inequality)."


  • Origins 1
  • Dimensions and calculation 2
    • New method (2010 Report onwards) 2.1
    • Old method (before 2010 Report) 2.2
  • 2014 report 3
    • Inequality-adjusted HDI 3.1
    • Countries not included 3.2
  • 2013 report 4
    • Inequality-adjusted HDI 4.1
  • 2011 report 5
    • Inequality-adjusted HDI 5.1
    • Countries not included 5.2
  • 2010 report 6
    • Inequality-adjusted HDI 6.1
    • Countries not included 6.2
  • 2009 report 7