World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Internet censorship in Singapore

Article Id: WHEBN0012831036
Reproduction Date:

Title: Internet censorship in Singapore  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Internet censorship by country, Internet censorship and surveillance by country, Media Development Authority, ICELL Network, SingNet
Collection: Freedom of Expression in Singapore, Internet Censorship by Country
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Internet censorship in Singapore

Internet censorship in Singapore is carried out by the Media Development Authority (MDA). Internet services provided by the three major Internet service providers (ISPs) are subject to regulation by the MDA, which requires blocking of a symbolic number of websites containing "mass impact objectionable" material, including Playboy, YouPorn and Ashley Madison.[1] The Ministry of Education, polytechnics, universities and Institute of Technical Education has its own jurisdiction to block websites displaying pornography, information about drugs and online piracy. The city state reportedly employs deep packet inspection of Internet traffic.[2]

Contents

  • Litigation against bloggers and other content providers 1
  • Computer Misuse and Cybersecurity Act 2
  • List of banned websites 3
  • Opposition to Internet censorship 4
    • Circumvention software 4.1
  • See also 5
  • References 6

Litigation against bloggers and other content providers

Leading politicians of the ruling People's Action Party and government agencies have been known to use or threaten to use litigation against bloggers and other Internet content providers.

The first instance of such activity was against Sintercom in July 2001 when the founder, Dr Tan Chong Kee, was asked to register the website under the nascent Singapore Broadcast Authority Act (now Media Development Authority). Dr Tan chose to shut down Sintercom due to concerns over the ambiguity of the Act.

In April 2005, a blogger, Chen Jiahao, then a graduate student at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, was made to apologise and shut down his blog containing criticisms on government agency A*STAR, after its Chairman Philip Yeo threatened to sue for defamation.

In September 2005, three people were arrested and charged under the Sedition Act for posting racist comments on the Internet.[3]

The Teachers' Union announced that it was offering legal assistance to teachers who want to take legal action against students who defame them on their blogs, after five students from Saint Andrew's Junior College were suspended for three days for allegedly "flaming" two teachers and a vice-principal on their blogs.[4]

On 8 October 2012, an assistant director at National Trades Union Congress membership department was fired for racist comments in Facebook.[5]

Computer Misuse and Cybersecurity Act

The Computer Misuse Act (CMA) was introduced in 1993 and its offence provisions are based primarily on the United Kingdom’s 1990 legislation of the same name.[6] In the years since, the government has taken a much tougher stand on Internet-related matters, including censorship. Amendments to the Penal Code in 2006 hold Internet users liable for "causing public mischief", and give the authorities broader powers in regulating Internet content.[7][8] Following the 2013 Singapore cyberattacks, the Computer Misuse Act was renamed to Computer Misuse and Cybersecurity Act.

List of banned websites

The MDA maintains a list of 100 banned websites. The number of websites banned is symbolic and will not change under current legislation.[9] When trying to access a blocked site, visitors are usually greeted by an MDA message, though the less transparent "404 error" screen may be displayed.

In 2005, the MDA banned a gay website and fined another website following complaints that the sites contained offensive content. The banned website is said to have promoted promiscuous sexual behaviour and recruited underage boys for sex and nude photography.[10]

Access to the BlueCoat Web Filtering Service was blocked due to the condition: Pornography.[11]

Since 8 July 2014, sites infringing copyright have also been blocked.

On 7 October 2014, the government passed the "Remote Gambling Act".[12] Under the new law it is an offence, punishable by jail terms and fines, for people to place bets on overseas gambling websites from Singapore. Advertisements for gambling websites are also outlawed. The law took effect on 1 February 2015 when several hundred remote gambling websites were blocked.[13]

Opposition to Internet censorship

Internet censorship circumvention is the process used by Internet users to bypass the technical aspects of Internet filtering and gain access to otherwise censored material.

Circumvention software

Software applications for circumventing web-blocking are readily available. Tor is in use through software including xB Browser and Vidalia, and a number of other proxy solutions including Proxify. Freenet is another popular solution available for free download from the Internet. GOM, a browser extension, is circumvention software specifically made for use in Singapore.[14][15]

See also

References

  1. ^ Lee, Melanie (23 May 2008). "Singapore bans two porn websites in symbolic move". Reuters. 
  2. ^ "Deep packet inspection rears it ugly head", Fazal Majid, 4 April 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  3. ^ Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2005, United States Department of State, retrieved 20 March 2006.
  4. ^ "Schools act against students for 'flaming' teachers on blogs", Sandra Davie and Liaw Wy-Cin, The Straits Times, page 1, 27 September 2005.
  5. ^ NTUC sacks staff for inappropriate Facebook comments, channelnewsasia.com, 8 October 2012.
  6. ^ An Overview of Cybercrime Legislation and Cases in Singapore, Gregor Urbas, Asian Law Institute (ANU), October 2008.
  7. ^ Mixing welfare and elitism in Singapore, Alex Au, Asia Times Online, 23 November 2006.
  8. ^ Consultation Paper on the Proposed Penal Code Amendments, Ministry of Home Affairs, 8 November 2006
  9. ^ "Censorship review committee Report of 2003" (PDF).  
  10. ^ "Singapore bans gay website". The Age Australia. Retrieved 25 September 2015. 
  11. ^ "The coming age of internet censorship". Retrieved 7 October 2012. 
  12. ^ "Singapore poised to block all roads to unlicensed gambling websites".  
  13. ^ "Singapore Blocks Access to Overseas Gambling Websites", Agence France-Presse (AFP), 3 February 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  14. ^ "How to access MDA blocked sites in Singapore with Chrome Browser". GOMVPN. Retrieved 9 April 2015. 
  15. ^ Alan Henry (24 April 2013). "The Best Browser Extensions that Protect Your Privacy". LifeHacker. Retrieved 9 April 2015. 
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Fair are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.