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Joseph McCarthy

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Joseph McCarthy

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Joseph McCarthy remains a very controversial figure. In the view of a few conservative latter-day authors, such as commentators William Norman Grigg[125] and Medford Stanton Evans,[126][127] McCarthy's place in history should be reevaluated. Many scholars, including some generally regarded as conservative, have opposed these views.[128][129]

Other authors and historians, including Arthur Herman,[130] assert that new evidence—in the form of Venona-decrypted Soviet messages, Soviet espionage data now opened to the West, and newly released transcripts of closed hearings before McCarthy's subcommittee—has partially vindicated McCarthy by showing that many of his identifications of Communists were correct and that the scale of Soviet espionage activity in the United States during the 1940s and 1950s was larger than many scholars suspected.[131][132]

After reviewing evidence from Venona and other sources, historian John Earl Haynes concluded that, of 159 people identified on lists used or referenced by McCarthy, evidence was substantial that nine had aided Soviet espionage efforts. He suggested that a majority of those on the lists could legitimately have been considered security risks, but that a substantial minority could not.[133] Among those implicated in files later made public from the Venona project and Soviet sources were Cedric Belfrage, Frank Coe, Lauchlin Currie, Harold Glasser, David Karr, Mary Jane Keeney, and Leonard Mins.[133][134][135][136][137][138][139]

These viewpoints are considered revisionist by many scholars.[140] Challenging efforts aimed at the "rehabilitation" of McCarthy, Haynes argues that McCarthy's attempts to "make anti-communism a partisan weapon" actually "threatened [the post-War] anti-Communist consensus", thereby ultimately harming anti-Communist efforts more than helping.[141]

Diplomat [142]

William Bennett, former Reagan Administration Secretary of Education, summed up this perspective in his 2007 book America: The Last Best Hope:

The cause of anti-communism, which united millions of Americans and which gained the support of Democrats, Republicans and independents, was undermined by Sen. Joe McCarthy ... McCarthy addressed a real problem: disloyal elements within the U.S. government. But his approach to this real problem was to cause untold grief to the country he claimed to love ... Worst of all, McCarthy besmirched the honorable cause of anti-communism. He discredited legitimate efforts to counter Soviet subversion of American institutions.[143]

HUAC and SACB

McCarthy's hearings are often incorrectly conflated with the hearings of the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC). HUAC is best known for the investigation of Alger Hiss and for its investigation of the Hollywood film industry, which led to the blacklisting of hundreds of actors, writers, and directors. HUAC was a House committee, and as such had no formal connection with McCarthy, who served in the Senate, although the existence of the House Un-American Activities Committee thrived in part as a result of McCarthy's activities. HUAC was active for 29 years.

Similarly, the Subversive Activities Control Board (SACB) was a five-member committee established by the McCarran Internal Security Act, which had a mandate, similar to HUAC and inspired by McCarthy, to locate and investigate so-called "subversives", or those sympathetic to the Communists. They were accused of promoting the establishment of a "totalitarian dictatorship" in the United States. Truman vetoed the act, sending Congress a lengthy veto message in which he criticized specific provisions as "the greatest danger to freedom of speech, press, and assembly since the Alien and Sedition Laws of 1798," and called it a "mockery of the Bill of Rights" and a "long step toward totalitarianism". His veto was overridden. SACB was active for 22 years.

In popular culture

From the start of his notoriety, McCarthy was a favorite subject for political cartoonists. He was traditionally depicted in a negative light, normally pertaining to McCarthyism and his accusations. Herblock's cartoon that coined the term McCarthyism appeared less than two months after the senator's now famous February 1950 speech in Wheeling, West Virginia. In 1953, the popular daily comic strip Pogo introduced the character Simple J. Malarkey, a pugnacious and conniving wildcat with an unmistakable physical resemblance to McCarthy. (After worried newspaper editors protested to the syndicate that provided the strip, creator Walt Kelly henceforth depicted the Malarkey character with a bag of garbage over his head, concealing his features.)

As his fame grew, McCarthy increasingly became the target of ridicule and parody. He was impersonated by nightclub and radio impressionists and was satirized in Mad magazine, on The Red Skelton Show, and elsewhere. Several comedy songs lampooning the senator were released in 1954, including "Point of Order" by Stan Freberg and Daws Butler, "Senator McCarthy Blues" by Hal Block, and unionist folk singer Joe Glazer's "Joe McCarthy's Band", sung to the tune of "McNamara's Band". Also in 1954, the radio comedy team Bob and Ray parodied McCarthy with the character "Commissioner Carstairs" in their soap opera spoof "Mary Backstayge, Noble Wife". That same year, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation radio network broadcast a satire, The Investigator, whose title character was a clear imitation of McCarthy. A recording of the show became popular in the United States, and was reportedly played by President Eisenhower at cabinet meetings.[144]

A more serious fictional portrayal of McCarthy played a central role in the 1959 novel The Manchurian Candidate by Richard Condon. The character of Senator John Iselin, a demagogic anti-communist, is closely modeled on McCarthy, even to the varying numbers of Communists he asserts are employed by the federal government. He remains a major character in the 1962 film version.

McCarthy was portrayed by Peter Boyle in the 1977 Emmy-winning television movie Tail Gunner Joe, a dramatization of McCarthy's life. Archival footage of McCarthy himself was used in the 2005 movie Good Night, and Good Luck about Edward R. Murrow and the See It Now episode that challenged McCarthy. McCarthy was also portrayed by Joe Don Baker in the 1992 HBO film Citizen Cohn.

Notes

  1. ^ For a history of this period, see, for example:
     
     
  2. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary (2000) defines "McCarthyism" as "the practice of publicizing accusations of political disloyalty or subversion with insufficient regard to evidence" and "the use of unfair investigatory or accusatory methods in order to suppress opposition". Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (1961) defines it as "characterized chiefly by opposition to elements held to be subversive and by the use of tactics involving personal attacks on individuals by means of widely publicized indiscriminate allegations especially on the basis of unsubstantiated charges".
  3. ^  
  4. ^ "Communists in Government Service, McCarthy Says". United States Senate History Website. Retrieved March 9, 2007. 
  5. ^  
  6. ^  
  7. ^ Johnson, David K. (2004). The Lavender Scare: The Cold War Persecution of Gays and Lesbians in the Federal Government. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.  
  8. ^ McDaniel, Rodger. Dying for Joe McCarthy's Sins
  9. ^ a b See, for example:Oshinsky, David M. (2005) [1983].  
  10. ^ Rovere, Richard H. (1959). Senator Joe McCarthy. New York: Harcourt, Brace. p. 79.  
  11. ^ "Joseph McCarthy: Biography". Appleton Public Library. 2003. Retrieved May 26, 2009. 
  12. ^ McCarthy as Student
  13. ^ In A Conspiracy So Immense, Oshinsky states that McCarthy chose Marquette University rather than the  
  14. ^ Judge on Trial, McCarthy – A Documented Record, The Progressive, April 1954
  15. ^ The Wisconsin Legislative Reference Library (1940). "The Wisconsin Blue Book 1940". Wisconsin Blue Books (Madison, WI: State of Wisconsin) 
  16. ^ Oshinsky explains this (p. 17) as resulting partially from the financial pressures of the Great Depression. He also notes (p. 28) that even during his judgeship, McCarthy was known to have gambled heavily after hours. Oshinsky, David M. (2005) [1983]. A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. New York: Free Press. pp. 17, 28.  
  17. ^ Commire, Anne (1994). Historic World Leaders: North & South America (M-Z). Gale Research Incorporated. p. 492. 
  18. ^ Herman, Arthur (2000). Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator. The Free Press A Division of Simon and Schuster. p. 26. 
  19. ^ Morgan, Ted (2003). Reds: McCarthyism In Twentieth-Century America. New York: Random House. p. 328.   In turn citing Michael O'Brien, McCarthy And McCarthyism In Wisconsin. Columbia, Mo. 1980.
  20. ^ Morgan, Ted (2003). Reds: McCarthyism In Twentieth-Century America. New York: Random House. p. 330.  
  21. ^ Oshinsky, David M. (2005) [1983]. A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. Oxford University Press. p. 27.  
  22. ^ Ryan, James G.; Schlup, Leonard (2006). Historical Dictionary of the 1940s. M. E. Sharpe, Inc. p. 245. 
  23. ^ a b c d Herman, Arthur (1999). Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator. Free Press. p. 30.  
  24. ^ Morgan, Ted (2003). Reds: McCarthyism In Twentieth-Century America. New York: Random House. p. 338. ^ Herman, Arthur (2000). Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator. The Free Press: A Division of Simon and Schuster. p. 33. 
  25. ^ Morgan, Ted (2004). Reds: McCarthyism in Twentieth-Century America. Random House. p. 420. 
  26. ^ Oshinsky describes the nickname "Tail-Gunner Joe" as the result of McCarthy's wish to break the record for most live ammunition discharged in a single mission. Oshinsky, David M. (2005) [1983]. A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. Oxford University Press. p. 32.  
  27. ^ Morgan, Ted (November–December 2003). "Judge Joe: How The Youngest Judge In Wisconsin's History Became The Country's Most Notorious Senator". Legal Affairs. Retrieved August 2, 2006. 
  28. ^ Rovere, Richard H. (1959). Senator Joe McCarthy. University of California Press. pp. 97, 102.  
  29. ^  
  30. ^ Herman, Arthur (1999). Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator. Free Press. pp. 44, 51, 55.  
  31. ^ Herman, Arthur (2000). Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator. Free Press. p. 53.  
  32. ^ Reeves, Thomas C. (1982). The Life and Times of Joe McCarthy: A Biography. Madison Books. pp. 116–119.  
  33. ^ Herman, Arthur (2000). Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator. Free Press. pp. 54–55.  
  34. ^ Herman, Arthur (1999). Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator. Free Press. p. 51.  
  35. ^ Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate.  
  36. ^ Phillips, Steve (2001). "5". In Martin Collier, Erica Lewis. The Cold War. Heinemann Advanced History. Oxford: Heinemann Educational Publishers. p. 65.  
  37. ^ "Congressional Record, 81st Congress, 2nd Session". West Virginia Division of Culture and History. February 20, 1950. Retrieved August 11, 2006. 
  38. ^ Cook, Fred J. (1971). The Nightmare Decade: The Life and Times of Senator Joe McCarthy. Random House. pp. 155–156.  
  39. ^ Also reported as up to 8 hours in length.
  40. ^ Reeves, Thomas C. (1982). The Life and Times of Joe McCarthy: A Biography. Madison Books. p. 227.  
  41. ^ Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate.  
  42. ^ Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate.  
  43. ^ David M. Barrett, CIA and Congress: The Untold Story from Truman to Kennedy (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2005), p. 65.
  44. ^ Congressional Record, 81st Congress, 2nd session, pp 2062–2068; quoted in:
    Reeves, Thomas C. (1982). The Life and Times of Joe McCarthy: A Biography. Madison Books. p. 243.  
  45. ^ Oshinsky, David M. (2005) [1983]. A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. Oxford University Press. p. 119.  
  46. ^ Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate.  
  47. ^ Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press. p. 128.  
  48. ^ a b David M. Barrett, CIA and Congress: The Untold Story from Truman to Kennedy (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2005), p. 67.
  49. ^ William N. Eskridge, "Privacy Jurisprudence and the Apartheid of the Closet, 1946-1961," Florida State University Law Review 23, no. 4 (Summer 1997); quoted in David M. Barrett, CIA and Congress: The Untold Story from Truman to Kennedy (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2005), p. 70.
  50. ^ David M. Barrett, CIA and Congress: The Untold Story from Truman to Kennedy (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2005), p. 70.
  51. ^ Hillenkoetter Testimony, 7-14-50, CIS Unpublished U.S. Senate Committee Hearings on Microfiche (Washington D.C.: Congressional Information Service); quoted in David M. Barrett, CIA and Congress: The Untold Story from Truman to Kennedy (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2005), p. 79.
  52. ^ David M. Barrett, CIA and Congress: The Untold Story from Truman to Kennedy (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2005), p. 80.
  53. ^ Oshinsky, David M. (2005) [1983]. A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. Oxford University Press. p. 175.  
  54. ^ The Official United States Congressional Daily Digest Records,. Government Publishing Office, Thomas Library, Official Repository Library, Local, Bakersfield California, CSUB. 2009 [1946]. pp. 8', 79th Congress, 3rd Session, Date August 2, 1946, Congressional Records — House, page 10749. 
  55. ^ The United States Constitution. Government Publishing Office, Thomas Library, Official Repository Library, Local, Bakersfield California, CSUB. 2009 [1782]. p. 10. 
  56. ^ Cook, Fred J. (1971). The Nightmare Decade: The Life and Times of Senator Joe McCarthy. Random House. pp. 150–151.  
  57. ^ Cook, Fred J. (1971). The Nightmare Decade: The Life and Times of Senator Joe McCarthy. Random House. p. 316.  
  58. ^ Herman, Arthur (2000). Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator. Free Press. p. 233.  
  59. ^ The allegation is specifically rejected in Rovere, Richard H. (1959). Senator Joe McCarthy. University of California Press. p. 68.  
  60. ^ Herman, Arthur (2000). Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator. Free Press. p. 131.  
  61. ^ a b c McCarthy, Joseph (1951). Major Speeches and Debates of Senator Joe McCarthy Delivered in the United States Senate, 1950–1951. Gordon Press. pp. 264, 307, 215.  
  62. ^ Oshinsky, David M. (2005) [1983]. A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. Oxford University Press. p. 194.  
  63. ^ Crosby, Donald F. (1978). God, Church, and Flag: Senator Joseph R. McCarthy and the Catholic Church, 1950–1957. University of North Carolina Press.  
  64. ^ Crosby, Donald F. (1978). God, Church, and Flag: Senator Joseph R. McCarthy and the Catholic Church, 1950–1957. University of North Carolina Press. pp. 200, 67.  
  65. ^ Morrow, Lance (1978). The Best Year of Their Lives: Kennedy, Johnson, And Nixon in 1948. Perseus Books Group. p. 4.  
  66. ^ Bogle, Lori (2001). Cold War Espionage and Spying. Routledge. p. 129.  
  67. ^ Oshinsky, David M. (2005) [1983]. A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. Oxford University Press. p. 240.  
  68. ^ The Kennedys. American Experience. Boston, Massachusetts: WGBH. 2009.
  69. ^ Leamer, Laurence (2001). The Kennedy Men: 1901–1963. HarperCollins. p. 346.  
  70. ^ Johnson, Haynes (2005). The Age of Anxiety: McCarthyism to Terrorism. Harcourt. p. 250.  
  71. ^ a b Wicker, Tom (2002). Dwight D. Eisenhower: The American Presidents Series. Times Books. p. 15.  
  72. ^ Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate.  
  73. ^ Oshinsky, David M. (2005) [1983]. A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. Oxford University Press. p. 259.  
  74. ^ Oshinsky, David M. (2005) [1983]. A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. Oxford University Press. p. 244.  
  75. ^ All quotes in this paragraph: Fried, Albert (1997). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press. pp. 182–184.  
  76. ^ Fried, Albert (1996). McCarthyism, The Great American Red Scare: A Documentary History. Oxford University Press. p. 179.  
  77. ^ Powers, Richard Gid (1998). Not Without Honor: The History of American Anticommunism. Yale University Press. p. 263.  
  78. ^ Parmet, Herbert S. (1998). Eisenhower and the American Crusades. Transaction Publishers. pp. 248, 337, 577.  
  79. ^ Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press. p. 134.  
  80. ^ See "Transcripts, Executive Sessions..." under Primary sources, below.
  81. ^  
  82. ^ a b Heil, Alan L. (2003). Voice of America: A History. Columbia University Press. p. 53.  
  83. ^ Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate.  
  84. ^ "Ike, Milton, and the McCarthy Battle". Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commission. Retrieved August 9, 2006. 
  85. ^ Often misidentified as "Reds In Our Churches;" see this versus this.
  86. ^ Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate.  
  87. ^ Stone. Perilous Times: Free Speech in Wartime from the Sedition Act of 1798 to the War on Terrorism.  
  88. ^ Schwarz, Frederick D. (November/December 2004). "1954 50 Years Ago: The Demagogue’s Downfall". American Heritage. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
  89. ^ Morgan, Ted (2004). Reds: McCarthyism in Twentieth-Century America. Random House. p. 489.  
  90. ^ Streitmatter, Rodger (1998). Mightier Than the Sword: How the News Media Have Shaped American History. Westview Press. p. 167.  
  91. ^ Powers, Richard Gid (1998). Not Without Honor: The History of American Anticommunism. Yale University Press. p. 271.  
  92. ^ Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press. p. 138.  
  93. ^ Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate.  
  94. ^ Cook, Fred J. (1971). The Nightmare Decade: The Life and Times of Senator Joe McCarthy. Random House. p. 536.  
  95. ^ "About McCarthy".  
  96. ^ Oshinsky, David M. (2005) [1983]. A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. Oxford University Press. p. 459.  
  97. ^ Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate.  
  98. ^ Oshinsky, David M. (2005) [1983]. A Conspiracy So Immense: The World of Joe McCarthy. Oxford University Press. p. 464.  
  99. ^ "Transcript – See it Now: A Report on Senator Joseph R. McCarthy". CBS-TV. March 9, 1954. Retrieved March 9, 2008. 
  100. ^ "Transcript – Senator Joseph R. McCarthy: Reply to Edward R. Murrow, See It Now". CBS-TV. April 6, 1954. Retrieved February 15, 2009. 
  101. ^ Herman, Arthur (2000). Joseph McCarthy: Reexamining the Life and Legacy of America's Most Hated Senator. Free Press. p. 253.  
  102. ^ "Joe Must Go: the Movement to Recall Senator Joseph R. McCarthy" by David P. Thelen and Esther S. Thelen, Wisconsin Magazine of History, spring 1966, pp. 185-209.
  103. ^  
  104. ^ Wallace, Patricia Ward (1995). Politics of Conscience: A Biography of Margaret Chase Smith. Praeger Trade. p. 109.  
  105. ^ Flanders, Ralph (1961). Senator from Vermont. Boston: Little, Brown. 
  106. ^ "Text of Flanders's speech". March 9, 1959. 
  107. ^ Woods, Randall Bennett (1995). Fulbright: A Biography. Cambridge University Press. p. 187.  
  108. ^ Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate.  
  109. ^ Rovere, Richard H. (1959). Senator Joe McCarthy. University of California Press. pp. 229–230.  
  110. ^ "Senate Resolution 301: Censure of Senator Joseph McCarthy". HistoricalDocuments.com. Retrieved March 9, 2008. 
  111. ^ United States Senate, Historical Office. "The Censure Case of Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin (1954)". Retrieved January 4, 2010. 
  112. ^ Oshinsky [1983] (2005), pp. 33, 490; Michael O'Brien, John F. Kennedy: A Biography (2005), pp. 250–54, 274–79, 396–400; Reeves (1982), pp. 442–43; Thomas Maier, The Kennedys: America's Emerald Kings (2003), pp. 270–80; Crosby, God, Church, and Flag, 138-60.
  113. ^ Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate.  
  114. ^ "Senate Report 104-137 – Resolution For Disciplinary Action". Library of Congress. 1995. Retrieved October 19, 2006. 
  115. ^ Rovere, Richard H. (1959). Senator Joe McCarthy. University of California Press. p. 231.  
  116. ^ Griffith, Robert (1970). The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate.  
  117. ^ Fried, Richard M. (1990). Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. Oxford University Press. p. 141.  
  118. ^ Graebner, Norman A. (1956). The New Isolationism: A Study in Politics and Foreign Policy since 1950. Ronald Press. p. 227. 
  119. ^ Eisler, Kim Isaac (1993). A Justice for All: William J. Brennan, Jr., and the Decisions That Transformed America. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 119.  
  120. ^ Cook, Fred J. (1971). The Nightmare Decade: The Life and Times of Senator Joe McCarthy. Random House. p. 537.  
  121. ^ Rovere, Richard H. (1959). Senator Joe McCarthy. University of California Press. pp. 244–245.  
  122. ^ "Joseph McCarthy Photographs: The Funeral". Archived from the original on 2012-02-05. Retrieved 2014-07-18. 
  123. ^ Nichols, John (July 31, 2007). "In 1957, a McCarthy-free morning in America".  
  124. ^  
  125. ^ Evans, M. Stanton (May 30, 1997). "McCarthyism: Waging the Cold War in America". Human Events. Retrieved August 28, 2006. 
  126. ^ Evans, M. Stanton (2007). Blacklisted By History: The Real Story of Joseph McCarthy and His Fight Against America's Enemies. Crown Forum.  
  127. ^  
  128. ^  
  129. ^
  130. ^ Haynes, John Earl; Klehr, Harvey (2000). Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America. Yale University Press.  
  131. ^ Weinstein, Allen; Vassiliev, Alexander (2000). The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America – The Stalin Era. Modern Library.  
  132. ^ a b Haynes, John Earl (2006). "Senator Joseph McCarthy's Lists and Venona". Retrieved August 31, 2006. 
  133. ^ John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2009; pp. 109-111, 179, 181–183, 193, 244-247, 312.
  134. ^ John Earl Haynes, Harvey Klehr, and Alexander Vassiliev, Spies: The Rise and Fall of the KGB in America. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2009; pp. 191, 345 and 581, footnote 89.
  135. ^ (Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1989) ISBN 978-0-669-11228-3, pp. 106–08;The KGB Against the "Main Enemy": How the Soviet Intelligence Service Operates Against the United StatesHerbert Romerstein and Stanislav Levchenko,
  136. ^ Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—The Stalin Era (New York: Modern Library, 2000) ISBN 978-0-375-75536-1), pp. 48, 158, 162, 169, 229
  137. ^ Eduard Mark,"In Re Alger Hiss: A Final Verdict from the Archives of the KGB" Journal of Cold War Studies 11.3 (2009): 26-67
  138. ^ John Earl Haynes, "The Characteristic of Ales in Venona 1822 compared to Foote, Stettinius, and Hiss" 7 June 2007 accessed: 6 Sept 2010
  139. ^
  140. ^ Haynes, John Earl (February 2000). "Exchange with Arthur Herman and Venona book talk". Retrieved July 11, 2007. 
  141. ^ Johnson, Paul (2010). Modern Times: The World from the Twenties to the Nineties. HarperCollins e-books. p. 457.  
  142. ^ Thomma, Steven (April 1, 2010). "Not satisfied with U.S. history, some conservatives rewrite it".  
  143. ^ Doherty, Thomas (2005). Cold War, Cool Medium: Television, McCarthyism, and American Culture. Columbia University Press. p. 213.  

References and further reading

Secondary sources

Primary sources

External links

Defenses of McCarthy:

  • "The Search for Joe McCarthy", Wisconsin Magazine of History, Volume 60, No. 3, Spring 1977, by Thomas C. Reeves
  • "Editor Taints Recently Published Hearings: How Senate Historian Botched Data on McCarthy" by M. Stanton Evans
  • "Levin and Collins Trigger Disinformation: Senate Historian Clams Up When Queried On McCarthy" by M. Stanton Evans

Criticism of McCarthy:

United States Senate
Preceded by
Robert M. La Follette, Jr.
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Wisconsin
1947–1957
Served alongside: Alexander Wiley
Succeeded by
William Proxmire
Political offices
Preceded by
John L. McClellan
Arkansas
Chairman of Senate Government Operations Committee
1953–1955
Succeeded by
John L. McClellan
Arkansas
Honorary titles
Preceded by
William F. Knowland
Youngest Member of the United States Senate
1947–1948
Succeeded by
Russell B. Long
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