World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

List of heritage sites damaged during the Syrian Civil War

Article Id: WHEBN0036701923
Reproduction Date:

Title: List of heritage sites damaged during the Syrian Civil War  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Syrian Civil War, Second Opium War, Berlin Wall
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

List of heritage sites damaged during the Syrian Civil War

Minaret of the Great Mosque of Aleppo, destroyed in fighting in 2013.

This is a list of heritage sites that were damaged during the Syrian Civil War.

Damage has been caused to all six World Heritage Sites in Syria along with numerous historic buildings, tell mounds, and archaeological sites.[1] Destructive effects of the conflict are caused by shelling, looting and army or militias occupation.


  • Krak des Chevaliers (World Heritage Site)[2][3] An air raid on Syria's famed Krak des Chevaliers castle, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, has damaged one of the fortress's towers. The footage shows a huge blast as a tower of the Crusader castle appears to take a direct hit, throwing up large clouds of smoke, and scattering debris in the air.

Concern has also been raised about sites likely to be affected by shelling including the World Heritage Sites at the centres of Damascus and Aleppo and the tentative World Heritage Site of Norias of Hama.


There are twenty five cultural heritage museums dispersed around Syria, many with artifacts stored outside. It has been reported that Homs museum has been looted and that only the museums and monuments of the capital, Damascus are safe from looting and destruction from the escalating warfare between government and armed rebel militias. The Prime Minister of Syria, Adel Safar warned on 11 July 2011 that "the country is threatened by armed criminal groups with hi-tech tools and specialized in the theft of manuscripts and antiquities, as well as the pillaging of museums" and called for increased security measures. This warning about the future situation has been interpreted as encouragement for the regime to participate in looting, as is suggested [by whom?] to have happened before in the times of Hafez al-Assad.[2]

Security at the Museum of Idlib has also been raised as a concern by Syrian archaeological heritage under threat. The lack of documentation of antiquities in the country has created a severe problem protecting the collections. Looting carries a fifteen-year prison sentence in Syria.[14]

Latest reports indicate a growing black market in the region where antiquities are being traded for weapons by the rebels. Time Magazine commented that continued looting will "rob Syria of its best chance for a post-conflict economic boom based on tourism, which, until the conflict started 18 months ago, contributed 12% to the national income."[1]

Army or militias occupation

Damage to ancient sites can be caused due to army occupation by encampments, entrenchment of military vehicles and weapons. It can also be caused during movement of materials for construction, souvenirs or even target practice.

  • Palmyra (World Heritage Site), tank occupation, statues and reliefs damaged.[4]
  • Apamea (Tentative World Heritage Site), bulldozers digging into the citadel mound.
  • Bosra (World Heritage Site), damaged by tanks.
  • Tell Rifa'i, damaged by soldiers using it as a camp.
  • The Chateau de Chmemis in Salamyeh, shelters for tanks excavated at the base of the citadel.
  • Khan Sheikhoun, shelters for tanks on the slopes of the tell.
  • Tell Afis, damaged by encampments.
  • Tell A'zaz, damaged by installation of heavy weaponry.
  • Deir Mar Musa al-Habashi monastery, possibly damaged during army search.
  • Kafr Nubbel rock shelters, damaged during searches for deserters.
  • Qal Markab, damaged by installation of heavy weaponry.
  • Tell Nebi Mend, damaged by installation of heavy weaponry.
  • Homs Qal, tanks and heavy weaponry installation.
  • Qal Hama, tanks and heavy weaponry installation.

UNESCO reaction

On 30 March 2012 Irena Bokova, the Director-General of UNESCO made a public appeal for the protection of Syria's cultural heritage and expressed "grave concern about possible damage to precious sites."[15]

On 2 October, Bokova issued a statement of regret about the destruction and fire that burnt the ancient souk in the old city of Aleppo. Calling it a "crossroads of cultures since the 2nd millennium BC". She called on the parties involved to comply with the Hague Convention of 1954 on the protection of cultural property in the event of armed conflict. She furthermore promised to send a team to assess the situation and provide assistance for emergency situations in order to protect Aleppo's heritage and to mitigate the effects of the cultural disaster and to avoid further damage.[16]

In June 2013, UNESCO placed Syria's six World Heritage Sites on the organization's list of endangered sites.[17]


  • Damage to the soul: Syria's cultural heritage in conflict (Archived at WebCite)

See also


  1. ^ a b c d Aryn Baker, Syria’s Looted Past: How Ancient Artifacts Are Being Traded for Guns, TIME World, 12 September 2012. (Archived at WebCite)
  2. ^ a b c d "Robert Fisk: Syria's ancient treasures pulverised". The Independent. 5 August 2012. Retrieved 5 August 2012. 
  3. ^ "Latest victim of Syria air strikes: Famed Krak des Chevaliers castle". Middle East Online. 13 July 2013. Retrieved 14 July 2013. 
  4. ^ a b Colvin, Mark., Fears for Syria's lost heritage, PM on ABC News, September 3, 2012. (Archived at WebCite)
  5. ^ Aleppo's ancient city a victim of Syrian war, Reuters, 28 August 2012 (Archived at WebCite)
  6. ^ Souk burns as Aleppo fight rages, Irish Times, 29 September, 2012. (Archived at WebCite)
  7. ^ Syria rebels battle army in landmark Aleppo mosque, The Daily Star (Lebanon), October 10, 2012. (Archived at WebCite)
  8. ^ Syria insurgents damage historical mosque in Aleppo, Press TV, October 2012. (Archived at WebCite)
  9. ^ قصف مأذنة الجامع القديم - سرمين - 27-2-2012 on YouTube
  10. ^ a b The destruction and shelling of sites (Archived at WebCite)
  11. ^ Al-Qusair - Destruction monastére Mar Elias القصير- دمار في دير مار الياس on YouTube
  12. ^ اثار القصف على المسجد العمري بالدبابات بالحراك on YouTube
  13. ^ Aleppo citadel hit by shelling, says opposition (Archived at WebCite)
  14. ^ Cunliffe, Emma., Damage to the Soul: Syria's cultural heritage in conflict, Durham University and the Global Heritage Fund, 1 May 2012 (Archived at WebCite)
  15. ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre. "Director-General of UNESCO appeals for protection of Syria’s cultural heritage, Friday, March 30, 2012.". Retrieved 20 November 2014. 
  16. ^ "Bokova, Irena., UNESCO Director general deplores destruction of ancient aleppo markets, a world heritage site,, 2 October 2012.". Retrieved 20 November 2014. 
  17. ^ "Six Syrian heritage sites declared endangered, 21 June 2013.". Retrieved 20 November 2014. 

External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Fair are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.