Southwest peoples


Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas is based upon cultural regions, geography, and linguistics. Anthropologists have named various cultural regions, with fluid boundaries, that are generally agreed upon with some variation. These cultural regions are broadly based upon the locations of indigenous peoples of the Americas from early European and African contact beginning in the late 15th century. When indigenous peoples have been forcibly removed by nation-states, they retain their original geographic classification. Some groups span multiple cultural regions.

Canada, Greenland, United States, and northern Mexico

In the United States and Canada, ethnographers commonly classify indigenous peoples into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas.[1] Greenland is part of the Arctic region. Some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands.

Arctic

Subarctic

Main article: Indigenous peoples of the Subarctic

California

Nota bene: The California cultural area does not exactly conform to the state of California's boundaries, and many tribes on the eastern border with Nevada are classified as Great Basin tribes and some tribes on the Oregon border are classified as Plateau tribes.[2]

Northeastern Woodlands

Great Basin

  • Shoshone (Shoshoni), California, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming
    • Eastern Shoshone people:
  • Northern Shoshone, Idaho[15]
  • Agaideka, Salmon Eaters, Lemhi, Snake River and Lemhi River Valley[20][21][20]
  • Doyahinee', Mountain people[18]
  • Kammedeka, Kammitikka, Jack Rabbit Eaters, Snake River, Great Salt Lake[20]
  • Hukundüka, Porcupine Grass Seed Eaters, Wild Wheat Eaters, possibly synonymous with Kammitikka[20][22]
  • Tukudeka, Dukundeka', Sheep Eaters (Mountain Sheep Eaters), Sawtooth Range, Idaho[21][20]
  • Yahandeka, Yakandika, Groundhog Eaters, lower Boise, Payette, and Wiser Rivers[21][20]
  • Western Shoshone people:
  • Cedar Valley Goshute
  • Deep Creek Goshute
  • Rush Valley Goshute
  • Skull Valley Goshute, Wipayutta, Weber Ute[22]
  • Toole Valley Goshute
  • Trout Creek Goshute[22]
  • Kuyatikka, Kuyudikka, Bitterroot Eaters, Halleck, Mary's River, Clover Valley, Smith Creek Valley, Nevada[22]
  • Mahaguadüka, Mentzelia Seed Eaters, Ruby Valley, Nevada[22]
  • Painkwitikka, Penkwitikka, Fish Eaters, Cache Valley, Idaho and Utah[22]
  • Pasiatikka, Redtop Grass Eaters, Deep Creek Gosiute, Deep Creek Valley, Antelope Valley[22]
  • Tipatikka, Pinenut Eaters, northernmost band[22]
  • Tsaiduka, Tule Eaters, Railroad Valley, Nevada[22]
  • Tsogwiyuyugi, Elko, Nevada[22]
  • Waitikka, Ricegrass Eaters, Ione Valley, Nevada[22]
  • Watatikka, Ryegrass Seed Eaters, Ruby Valley, Nevada[22]
  • Wiyimpihtikka, Buffalo Berry Eaters[22]

Northwest Plateau


Plateau tribes include the following:

Chinook peoples

Interior Salish

Sahaptin people

Other or both

Pacific Northwest Coast

  • Ahantchuyuk – see Kalapuya
  • Alsea
  • Applegate
  • Atfalati – see Kalapuya
  • Bella Bella – see Heiltsuk
  • Bella Coola – see Nuxalk
  • Burrard – see Tsleil-waututh
  • Calapooia – see Kalapuya
  • Calapuya – see Kalapuya
  • Central Kalapuya – see Kalapuya
  • Chasta Costa – see Rogue River
  • Chehalis (Upper and Lower) Washington
  • Chehalis (BC), Fraser Valley
  • Chemakum Washington (extinct)
  • Chetco – see Tolowa
  • Chinook Dialects: (Lower Chinook, Upper Chinook, Clackamas, Wasco)
  • Clallam – see Klallam
  • Clatsop
  • Comox Vancouver Island/BC Georgia Strait
  • Coos Hanis} Oregon
  • Lower Coquille (Miluk) Oregon
  • Upper Coquille
  • Cowichan Southern Vancouver Island/Georgia Strait
  • Lower Cowlitz Washington
  • Duwamish Washington
  • Eyak Alaska
  • Galice
  • Gitxsan, British Columbia
  • Haida (Dialects: Kaigani, Skidegate, Masset) BC & Alaska
  • Haisla BC North/Central Coast
  • Heiltsuk BC Central Coast
  • Hoh Washington
  • Kalapuya (Calapooia, Calapuya)
  • Klallam (Clallam, Dialects: Klallam (Lower Elwha), S'Klallam (Jamestown), S'Klallam (Port Gamble))
  • Klickitat
  • Kwalhioqua
  • Kwakwaka'wakw (Kwakiutl)
  • Kwalhioqua
  • Kwatami
  • Lakmiut – see Kalapuya
  • Lower McKenzie – see Kalapuya
  • Lummi Washington
  • Makah Washington
  • Mary's River – see Kalapuya
  • Muckleshoot Washington
  • Musqueam BC Lower Mainland (Vancouver)
  • Nisga'a, British Columbia
  • Nisqually - Washington
  • Nooksack Washington
  • North Kalapuya – see Kalapuya
  • Nisqually Washington
  • Nuu-chah-nulth West Coast of Vancouver Island
  • Nuxalk (Bella Coola) – BC Central Coast
  • Oowekeno – see Wuikinuxv
  • Pentlatch Vancouver Island/Georgia Strait (extinct)
  • Puyallup Washington
  • Quileute Washington
  • Quinault Washington
  • Rivers Inlet – see Wuikinuxv
  • Rogue River or Upper Illinois Oregon, California
  • Saanich Southern Vancouver Island/Georgia Strait
  • Samish Washington
  • Santiam – see Kalapuya
  • Sauk-Suiattle Washington
  • Sechelt BC Sunshine Coast/Georgia Strait (Shishalh)
  • Shoalwater Bay Tribe Washington
  • Siletz Oregon
  • Siuslaw Oregon
  • Skagit
  • Skokomish Washington
  • Skwxwu7mesh (Squamish), British Columbia
  • Sliammon BC Sunshine Coast/Georgia Strait (Mainland Comox)
  • Snohomish
  • Snoqualmie
  • Snuneymuxw (Nanaimo), Vancouver Island
  • Songhees (Songish) Southern Vancouver Island/Strait of Juan de Fuca
  • Sooke Southern Vancouver Island/Strait of Juan de Fuca
  • South Kalapuya – see Kalapuya
  • Squaxin Island Tribe Washington
  • Spokane Washington
  • Stillaguamish Washington
  • Sto:lo, BC Lower Mainland/Fraser Valley
  • Squamish – see Skwxwu7mesh
  • Suquamish Washington
  • Swinomish Washington
  • Tait
  • Takelma Oregon
  • Talio
  • Tfalati – see Kalapuya
  • Tillamook (Nehalem) Oregon
  • Tlatlasikoala
  • Tlingit Alaska
  • Tolowa-Tututni
  • Tsimshian
  • Tsleil-waututh (Burrard) - British Columbia
  • Tualatin – see Kalapuya
  • Tulalip Washington
  • Twana Washington
  • Tzouk-e (Sooke) Vancouver Island
  • Lower Umpqua Oregon
  • Upper Umpqua Oregon
  • Upper Skagit Washington
  • Wuikinuxv (Owekeeno), BC Central Coast
  • Yamel – see Kalapuya
  • Yamhill – see Kalapuya
  • Yaquina
  • Yoncalla – see Kalapuya

Great Plains

Main article: Plains Indians

Indigenous peoples of the Great Plains are often separated into Northern and Southern Plains tribes.

Southeastern Woodlands

Southwest

This region is sometimes called Oasisamerica and includes parts of what is now Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, Chihuahua, and Sonora

Mexico and Mesoamerica

The indigenous peoples of Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean are generally classified by language, environment, and cultural similarities.

Aridoamerica

Main article: Aridoamerica

Mesoamerica

Circum-Caribbean

Partially organized per Handbook of South American Indians.[52]

Caribbean

Anthropologist Julian Steward defined the Antilles cultural area, which includes all of the Antilles and Bahamas, except for Trinidad and Tobago.[52]

Central America

The Central American culture area includes part of El Salvador, most of Honduras, all of Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama, and some peoples on or near the Pacific coasts of Colombia and Ecuador.[52]

  • Bagaces, Costa Rica
  • Bokota, Panama
  • Boruca, Costa Rica
  • Bribri, Costa Rica
  • Cabécar, Costa Rica
  • Cacaopera (Matagalpa, Ulua), formerly El Salvador[55]
  • Cayada, Ecuador
  • Changuena, Panama
  • Embera-Wounaan (Chocó, Wounaan), Colombia, Panama
  • Choluteca, Honduras
  • Coiba, Costa Rica
  • Coito, Costa Rica
  • Corobici, Costa Rica
  • Desaguadero, Costa Rica
  • Dorasque, Panama
  • Guatuso, Costa Rica
  • Guaymí, Panama
    • Movere, Panama
    • Murire, Panama
  • Guetar, Costa Rica
  • Kuna (Guna), Panama and Columbia
  • Lenca, Honduras and El Salvador
  • Mangue, Nicaragua
  • Maribichocoa, Honduras and Nicaragua
  • Miskito, Hondrus, Nicaragua
  • Nagrandah, Nicaragua
  • Ngöbe Buglé, Bocas del Toro, Panama
  • Nicarao, Nicaragua
  • Nicoya, Costa Rica
  • Orotiña, Costa Rica
  • Paparo, Panama
  • Paya, Honduras
  • Pech, northeastern Honduras
  • Piria, Nicaragua
  • Poton, Honduras and El Salvador
  • Quepo, Costa Rica
  • Rama, Nicaragua
  • Sigua, Panama
  • Subtiaba, Nicaragua
  • Suerre, Costa Rica
  • Sumo (Mayagna), Honduras and Nicaragua
  • Terraba (Naso, Teribe, Tjër Di), Panama
  • Tojar, Panama
  • Tolupan (Jicaque), Honduras
  • Ulva, El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua
  • Voto, Costa Rica
  • Yasika, Nicaragua

Colombia and Venezuela

The Colombia and Venezuela culture area includes most of Colombia and Venezuela. Southern Colombia is in the Andean culture area, as are some peoples of central and northeastern Colombia, who are surrounded by peoples of the Colombia and Venezuela culture. Eastern Venezuela is in the Guianas culture area, and southeastern Colombia and southwestern Venezuela are in the Amazonia culture area.[52]

  • Abibe, northwestern Colombia
  • Aburrá, central Colombia
  • Achagua (Axagua), eastern Colombia, western Venezuela
  • Agual, western Colombia
  • Amaní, central Colombia
  • Ancerma, western Colombia
  • Andaqui (Andaki), Huila Department, Colombia
  • Andoque, Andoke, southeastern Colombia
  • Antiochia, Colombia
  • Arbi, western Colombia
  • Arma, western Colombia
  • Atunceta, western Colombia
  • Auracana, northeastern Colombia
  • Buriticá, western Colombia
  • Calamari, northwestern Colombia
  • Calima culture, western Colombia, 200 BCE–400 CE
  • Caramanta, western Columbia
  • Carate, northeastern Colombia
  • Carare, northeastern Colombia
  • Carex, northwestern Colombia
  • Cari, western Colombia
  • Carrapa, western Colombia
  • Cartama, western Colombia
  • Cauca culture, western Colombia, 800–1200 CE
  • Corbago, northeastern Colombia
  • Cosina, northeastern Colombia
  • Catio, northwestern Colombia
  • Cenú, northwestern Colombia
  • Cenufaná, northwestern Colombia
  • Chanco, western Colombia
  • Coanoa, northeastern Colombia
  • Evéjito, western Colombia
  • Fincenú, northwestern Colombia
  • Gorrón, western Colombia
  • Guahibo (Guajibo), eastern Colombia, southern Venezuela
  • Guambía, western Colombia
  • Guane culture, Colombia, pre-Columbian culture
  • Guanebucan, northeastern Colombia
  • Guazuzú, northwestern Colombia
  • Hiwi, western Colombia, eastern Venezuela
  • Jamundí, western Colombia
  • Kogi, northern Colombia
  • Lile, western Colombia
  • Lache, central Colombia
  • Maco (Mako, Itoto, Wotuja, or Jojod), northeastern Colombia and western Venezuela
  • Mompox, northwestern Colombia
  • Motilone, northeastern Colombia and western Venezuela
  • Naura, central Colombia
  • Nauracota, central Colombia
  • Noanamá (Waunana, Huaunana, Woun Meu), northwestern Colombia and Panama
  • Nutabé, northwestern Colombia
  • Opón, northeastern Colombia
  • Pacabueye, northwestern Colombia
  • Pancenú, northwestern Colombia
  • Patángoro, central Colombia
  • Paucura, western Colombia
  • Pemed, northwestern Colombia
  • Pequi people, western Colombia
  • Piaroa, Colombia and Venezuela
  • Picara, western Colombia
  • Pozo, western Colombia
  • Pumé (Yaruro), Venezuela
  • Quimbaya, central Colombia, 4th–7th centuries CE
  • Quinchia, western Colombia
  • Sutagao, central Colombian
  • Tahamí, northwestern Colombia
  • Tairona, northern Colombia, pre-Columbian culture, 1st–11th centuries CE
  • Tamalameque, northwestern Colombia
  • Timba, western Colombia
  • Tinigua, Caquetá Department, Colombia
  • Tolú, northwestern Colombia
  • Toro, western Colombia
  • Tupe, northeastern Colombia
  • Turbaco people, northwestern Colombia
  • Urabá, northwestern Colombia
  • Urezo, northwestern Colombia
  • U'wa, eastern Colombia, western Venezuela
  • Wayuu (Wayu, Wayúu, Guajiro, Wahiro), northeastern Colombia and northwestern Venezuela
  • Xiriguana, northeastern Colombia
  • Yamicí, northwestern Colombia
  • Yapel, northwestern Colombia
  • Yarigui, northeastern Colombia
  • Yukpa, Yuko, northeastern Colombia
  • Zamyrua, northeastern Colombia
  • Zendagua, northwestern Colombia
  • Zenú, northwestern Colombia, pre-Columbian culture, 200 BCE–1600 CE
  • Zopia, western Colombia

Guianas

This region includes northern parts Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela, and parts of the Amazonas, Amapá, Pará, and Roraima States in Brazil.

  • Acawai (6N 60W)
  • Acokwa (3N 53W)
  • Acuria (Akurio, Akuriyo), 5N 55W, Suriname
  • Akawaio, Roraima, Brazil, Guyana, and Venezuela
  • Amariba (2N 60W)
  • Amicuana (2N 53W)
  • Apalaí (Apalai), Amapá, Brazil
  • Apirua (3N 53W)
  • Apurui (3N 53W)
  • Aracaret (4N 53W)
  • Aramagoto (2N 54W)
  • Aramisho (2N 54W)
  • Arebato (7N 65W)
  • Arekena (2N 67W)
  • Arhuaco, northeastern Colombia
  • Arigua
  • Arinagoto (4N 63W)
  • Arua (1N 50W)
  • Aruacay, Venezuela
  • Atorai (2N 59W)
  • Atroahy (1S 62W)
  • Auaké, Brazil and Guyana
  • Baniwa (Baniva) (3N 68W), Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela
  • Baraüana (1N 65W)
  • Bonari (3S 58W)
  • Baré (3N 67W)
  • Caberre (4N 71 W)
  • Cadupinago
  • Cariaya (1S 63 W)
  • Carib (Kalinago), Venezuela
  • Carinepagoto, Trinidad
  • Chaguan, Venezuela
  • Chaima, Venezuela
  • Cuaga, Venezuela
  • Cuacua, Venezuela
  • Cumanagoto, Venezuela
  • Guayano, Venezuela
  • Guinau (4N 65W)
  • Hixkaryána, Amazonas, Brazil
  • Inao (4N 65W)
  • Ingarikó, Brazil, Guyana and Venezuela
  • Jaoi (Yao), Guyana, Trinidad and Venezuela
  • Kali'na, Brazil, Guyana, French Guiana, Suriname, Venezuela
  • Lokono (Arawak, Locono), Guyana, Trinidad, Venezuela
  • Macapa (2N 59W)
  • Macushi, Brazil and Guyana
  • Maipure (4N 67W)
  • Maopityan (2N 59W)
  • Mapoyo (Mapoye), Venezuela
  • Marawan (3N 52W)
  • Mariche, Venezuela
  • Mariusa, Venezuela
  • Marourioux (3N 53W)
  • Nepuyo (Nepoye), Guyana, Trinidad and Venezuela
  • Orealla, Guyana
  • Palengue, Venezuela
  • Palikur, Brazil, French Guiana
  • Parauana (2N 63W)
  • Parauien (3S 60W)
  • Pareco, Venezuela
  • Paria, Venezuela
  • Patamona, Roraima, Brazil
  • Pauishana (2N 62W)
  • Pemon (Arecuna), Brazil, Guyana, and Venezuela
  • Piapoco (3N 70W)
  • Piaroa, Venezuela
  • Pino (3N 54W)
  • Piritú, Venezuela
  • Purui (2N 52W)
  • Saliba (Sáliva), Venezuela
  • Sanumá, Venezuela, Brazil
  • Shebayo, Trinidad
  • Sikiana (Chikena, Xikiyana), Brazil, Suriname
  • Tagare, Venezuela
  • Tamanaco, Venezuela
  • Tarumá (3S 60W)
  • Tibitibi, Venezuela
  • Tiriyó (Tarëno), Brazil, Suriname
  • Tocoyen (3N 53W)
  • Tumuza, Venezuela
  • Wai-Wai, Amazonas, Brazil and Guyana
  • Wapishana, Brazil and Guyana
  • Warao (Warrau), Guyana and Venezuela
  • Wayana (Oyana), Pará, Brazil
  • Ya̧nomamö (Yanomami), Venezuela and Amazonas, Brazil
  • Ye'kuana, Venezuela, Brazil

Eastern Brazil

This region includes parts of the Ceará, Goiás, Espírito Santo, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Pará, and Santa Catarina states of Brazil

Andes

Main article: Andes § People
  • Andean Hunting-Collecting Tradition, Argentina, 11,000–4,000 CE
  • Awa-Kwaiker, northern Ecuador, southern Colombia
  • Aymara, Bolivia,[57] Chile, Peru
  • Callawalla (Callahuaya), Bolivia[57]
  • Cañari, Ecuador
  • Capulí culture, Ecuador, 800—1500 CE
  • Cerro Narrio (Chaullabamba) (Precolumbian culture)
  • Chachapoyas, Amazonas, Peru
  • Chachilla (Cayapas)
  • Chanka (Chanca), Peru
  • Chavín, northern Peru, 900–200 BCE
  • Chincha people, Peru (Precolumbian culture)
  • Chipaya, Oruro Department, Bolvia[57]
  • Chuquibamba culture (Precolumbian culture)
  • Conchucos
  • Diaguita
    • Amaicha, Argentina
    • Calchaquí, Argentina
    • Chicoana, Salta, Argentina
    • Quilmes (Precolumbian culture), Argentina
  • Guangaia (Precolumbian culture)
  • Ichuña microlithic tradition (Precolumbian culture)
  • Inca Empire (Inka), based in Peru
  • Jama-Coaque (Precolumbian culture)
  • Killke culture, Peru, 900–1200 CE
  • Kogi
  • Kolla (Colla), Argentina, Bolivia, Chile
  • La Tolita (Precolumbian culture)
  • Las Vegas culture, coastal Ecuador, 8000 BCE–4600 BCE
  • Lauricocha culture, Peru, 8000–2500 BCE
  • Lima culture, Peru, 100–650 CE
  • Maina, Ecuador, Peru
  • Manteño-Huancavilca (Precolumbian culture)
  • Milagro (Precolumbian culture)
  • Mollo culture, Bolivia, 1000–1500 CE
  • Muisca, Colombian highlands (Precolumbian culture)
  • Pachacama (Precolumbian culture)
  • Paez (Nasa culture), Colombian highlands (Precolumbian culture)
  • Panzaleo (Precolumbian culture)
  • Pasto
  • Pijao, Colombia
  • Quechua (Kichua, Kichwa), Bolivia[57]
  • Quitu culture, 2000 BCE—1550 CE
  • Salinar (Precolumbian culture)
  • Saraguro
  • Tiwanaku culture (Tiahuanaco), 400-1000 CE, Bolivia
  • Tsáchila (Colorado), Ecuador
  • Tuza-Piartal (Precolumbian culture)
  • Uru, Bolivia,[57] Peru
  • Wari culture, central coast and highlands of Peru, 500–1000 CE

Pacific lowlands

Amazon

Main article: Amazonia

Northwestern Amazon

This region includes Amazonas in Brazil; the Amazonas and Putumayo Departments in Colombia; Cotopaxi, Los Rios, Morona-Santiago, Napo, and Pastaza Provinces and the Oriente Region in Ecuador; and the Loreto Region in Peru.

  • Arabela, Loreto Region, Peru
  • Arapaso (Arapaco), Amazonas, Brazil
  • Baniwa
  • Barbudo, Loreto Region, Peru
  • Bora, Loreto Region, Peru
  • Candoshi-Shapra (Chapras), Loreto Region, Peru
  • Carútana (Arara), Amazonas, Brazil
  • Chayahuita (Chaywita) Loreto Region, Peru
  • Cocama, Loreto Region, Peru
  • Cofán (Cofan), Putumayo Department, Colombia and Ecuador
  • Cubeo (Kobeua), Amazonas, Brazil and Colombia
  • Dâw, Rio Negro, Brazil
  • Flecheiro
  • Huaorani (Waorani, Waodani, Waos), Ecuador
  • Hupda (Hup), Brazil, Colombia
  • Jibito, Loreto Region, Peru
  • Jivaroan peoples, Ecuador and Peru
    • Achuar, Morona-Santiago Province and Oriente Region, Ecuador and Loreto Region, Peru
    • Aguaruna (Aguarana), Ecuador, Peru
    • Huambisa, Peru
    • Shuar, Morona-Santiago Province and Oriente Region, Ecuador and Loreto Region, Peru
  • Kachá (Shimaco, Urarina), Loreto Region, Peru
  • Kamsá (Sebondoy), Putumayo Department, Colombia
  • Kanamarí, Amazonas, Brazil
  • Kichua (Quichua)
    • Cañari Kichua (Canari)
    • Canelo Kichua (Canelos-Quichua), Pataza Province, Ecuador
    • Chimborazo Kichua
    • Cholos cuencanos
    • Napo Runa (Napo Kichua, Quijos-Quichua, Napo-Quichua), Ecuador and Peru
    • Saraguro
    • Sarayacu Kichua, Pastaza Province, Ecuador
  • Korubu, Amazonas, Brazil
  • Kugapakori-Nahua
  • Macaguaje (Majaguaje), Río Caquetá, Colombia
  • Machiguenga, Peru
  • Marubo
  • Matsés (Mayoruna, Maxuruna), Brazil and Peru
  • Mayoruna (Maxuruna)
  • Miriti, Amazonas Department, Colombia
  • Murato, Loreto Region, Peru
  • Mura, Amazonas, Brazil
    • Pirahã (Mura-pirarrã), Amazonas, Brazil
  • Nukak (Nukak-Makú), eastern Colombia
  • Ocaina, Loreto Region, Peru
  • Omagua (Cambeba, Kambeba, Umana), Amazonas, Brazil
  • Orejón (Orejon), Napo Province, Ecuador
  • Panoan, western Brazil, Bolivia, Peru
  • Sharpas
  • Siona (Sioni), Amazonas Department, Colombia
  • Siriano, Brazil, Colombia
  • Siusi, Amazonas, Brazil
  • Tariano (Tariana), Amazonas, Brazil
  • Tsohom Djapá
  • Tukano (Tucano), Brazil, Colombia
    • Barasana (Pareroa, Taiwano), Amazonas, Brazil and Vaupés, Colombia
    • Eastern Tukanoan (Tucanoan)
    • Makuna (Buhagana, Macuna), Amazonas, Brazil and Vaupés, Colombia
  • Waikino (Vaikino), Amazonas, Brazil
  • Waimiri-Atroari (Kinja, Uaimiri-Atroari), Amazonas and Roraima, Brazil
  • Wanano (Unana, Vanana), Amazonas, Brazil
  • Witoto
    • Murui Witoto, Loreto Region, Peru
  • Yagua (Yahua), Loreta Region, Peru
  • Yaminahua (Jaminawa, Yamanawa, Yaminawá), Pando Department, Bolivia[57]
  • Yora
  • Záparo (Zaparo), Pastaza Province, Ecuador
  • Zuruahã (Suruahá, Suruwaha), Amazonas, Brazil

Eastern Amazon

This region includes Amazonas, Maranhão, and parts of Pará States in Brazil.

  • Amanayé (Ararandeura), Brazil
  • Araweté (Araueté, Bïde), Pará, Brazil
  • Awá (Guajá), Brazil
  • Chuncho, Peru
  • Ge
  • Guajajára (Guajajara), Maranhão, Brazil
  • Guarani, Paraguay
  • Ka'apor, Maranhão, Brazil
  • Kuruaya, Pará, Brazil
  • Marajoara, Precolumbian culture, Pará, Brazil
  • Panará, Mato Grosso and Pará, Brazil
  • Parakanã (Paracana)
  • Suruí do Pará, Pará, Brazil
  • Tembé (Tembe)
  • Turiwára (Turiwara)
  • Wayampi
  • Zo'é people, Pará, Brazil

Southern Amazon

This region includes southern Brazil (Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, parts of Pará, and Rondônia) and Eastern Bolivia (Beni Department).

  • Apiacá (Apiaká), Mato Grosso and Pará, Brazil[58]
  • Assuriní do Toncantins (Tocantin)
  • Aweti (Aueto), Mato Grosso, Brazil
  • Bakairí (Bakairi)
  • Chácobo (Chacobo), northwest Beni Department, Bolivia[57]
  • Chiquitano (Chiquito, Tarapecosi), Brazil and Santa Cruz, Bolivia[57]
  • Cinta Larga, Mato Grosso, Brazil
  • Enawene Nawe, Mato Grosso, Brazil
  • Gavião of Rondônia
  • Guarayu (Guarayo), Bolivia[57]
  • Ikpeng (Xicao), Mato Grosso, Brazil
  • Itene, Beni Department, Bolivia[57]
  • Irántxe (Iranche)
  • Juma (Kagwahiva), Rondônia, Brazil
  • Jurúna (Yaruna, Juruna, Yudjá), Mato Grosso, Brazil
  • Kaiabi (Caiabi, Cajabi, Kajabi, Kayabi), Mato Grosso, Brazil
  • Kalapálo (Kalapalo), Mato Grosso, Brazil
  • Kamayurá (Camayura), Mato Grosso, Brazil
  • Kanoê (Kapixaná), Rondônia, Brazil
  • Karipuná (Caripuna)
  • Karitiâna (Caritiana), Brazil
  • Kayapo, Mato Grosso, Brazil
  • Kuikuro, Mato Grosso, Brazil
  • Matipu, Mato Grosso, Brazil
  • Mehináku (Mehinacu, Mehinako), Mato Grosso, Brazil
  • Moxo (Mojo), Bolivia
  • Nahukuá (Nahuqua), Mato Grosso, Brazil
  • Nambikuára (Nambicuara, Nambikwara), Mato Grosso, Brazil
  • Pacahuara (Pacaguara, Pacawara), northwest Beni Deparmtent, Bolivia[57]
  • Pacajá (Pacaja)
  • Panará, Mato Grosso and Pará, Brazil
  • Parecís (Paressi)
  • Rikbaktsa (Erikbaksa), Mato Grosso, Brazil
  • Rio Pardo people, Mato Grosso, Brazil
  • Sateré-Mawé (Maue), Brazil
  • Suyá (Kisedje), Mato Grosso, Brazil
  • Tacana (Takana), Beni and Madre de Dios Rivers, Bolivia[57]
  • Tapajó (Tapajo)
  • Tapirapé (Tapirape)
  • Tenharim
  • Terena, Mato Gross and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
  • Trumai, Mato Grosso, Brazil
  • Tsimané (Chimané, Mosetén, Pano), Beni Department, Bolivia[57]
  • Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau, Rondônia, Brazil
  • Wari' (Pacanawa, Waricaca'), Rondônia, Brazil
  • Wauja (Waurá, Waura), Mato Grosso, Brazil
  • Wuy jugu (Mundurucu, Munduruku)
  • Yawalapiti (Iaualapiti), Mato Grosso, Brazil

Southwestern Amazon

This region includes the Cuzco, Huánuco Junín, Loreto, Madre de Dios, and Ucayali Regions of eastern Peru, parts of Acre, Amazonas, and Rondônia, Brazil, and parts of the La Paz and Beni Departments of Bolivia.

  • Aguano (Santacrucino, Uguano), Peru
  • Aikanã, Rondônia, Brazil
  • Akuntsu, Rondônia, Brazil
  • Amahuaca, Brazil, Peru
  • Asháninka (Campa, Chuncha), Acre, Brazil and Junín, Pasco, Huánuco, and Ucayali, Peru
  • Banawá (Jafí, Kitiya), Amazonas, Brazil
  • Cashibo (Carapache), Huánuco Region, Peru
  • Conibo (Shipibo-Conibo), Peru and Amazonas, Brazil
  • Ese Ejja (Chama), Beni Department, Bolivia[57]
  • Harakmbut, Madre de Dios, Peru
    • Amarakaeri, Madre de Dios Region, Peru
      • Kareneri, Madre de Dios Region, Peru
    • Huachipaeri, Madre de Dios Region, Peru
      • Arasairi, Madre de Dios Region, Peru
      • Manuquiari, Madre de Dios Region, Peru
      • Puikiri (Puncuri), Madre de Dios Region, Peru
      • Sapiteri, Madre de Dios Region, Peru
      • Toyeri, Madre de Dios Region, Peru[59]
  • Hi-Merimã, Himarimã, Amazonas, Brazil
  • Jamamadi, Acre and Amazonas, Brazil
  • Kaxinawá (Cashinahua, Huni Kuin), Peru and Acre, Brazil
  • Kulina (Culina), Peru
  • Kwaza (Coaiá, Koaiá), Rondônia, Brazil
  • Latundê, Rondônia, Brazil
  • Machinere, Bolivia[57] and Peru
  • Mashco-Piro, Peru
  • Matís (Matis), Brazil
  • Matsés (Mayoruna, Maxuruna), Brazil, Peru
  • Parintintin (Kagwahiva’nga), Brazil
  • Shipibo, Loreto Region, Peru
  • Ticuna (Tucuna), Brazil, Colombia, Peru
  • Toromono (Toromona), La Paz Department, Bolivia[57]
  • Yanesha' (Amuesha), Cusco Region, Peru
  • Yawanawa (Jaminawá, Marinawá, Xixinawá), Acre, Brazil; Madre de Dios, Peru; and Bolivia
  • Yine (Contaquiro, Simiranch, Simirinche), Cuzco Region, Peru
  • Yuqui (Bia, Yuki), Cochabamba Department, Bolivia[57]
  • Yuracaré (Yura), Beni and Cochabamba Departments, Bolivia[57]

Gran Chaco

Main article: Gran Chaco
  • Abipón, Argentina, historic group
  • Angaite (Angate), northwestern Paraguay
  • Ayoreo[60] (Ayoré, Moro, Morotoco, Pyeta, Yovia,[57] Zamuco), Bolivia and Paraguay
  • Chamacoco (Zamuko),[60] Paraguay
  • Chané, Argentina and Bolivia
  • Chiquitano (Chiquito, Tarapecosi), eastern Bolivia
  • Chorote (Choroti,[60] Iyo'wujwa,[57] Iyojwa'ja Chorote, Manjuy), Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay
  • Guana[60] (Kaskihá), Paraguay
  • Guaraní,[60] Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Paraguay
    • Bolivian Guarani[57]
      • Chiriguano, Bolivia
      • Guarayo (East Bolivian Guarani)
    • Chiripá (Tsiripá, Ava), Bolivia
    • Pai Tavytera (Pai, Montese, Ava), Bolivia
    • Tapieté (Guaraní Ñandéva, Yanaigua),[60] eastern Bolivia[57]
    • Yuqui (Bia), Bolivia
  • Guaycuru peoples, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Paraguay
  • Kaiwá,[60] Argentina and Brazil
  • Lengua people (Enxet),[60] Paraguay
    • North Lengua (Eenthlit, Enlhet, Maskoy), Paraguay
    • South Lengua, Paraguay
  • Lulé (Pelé, Tonocoté), Argentina
  • Maká[60] (Towolhi), Paraguay
  • Nivaclé (Ashlushlay,[60] Chulupí, Chulupe, Guentusé), Argentina and Paraguay
  • Sanapaná[60] (Quiativis), Paraguay
  • Vilela, Argentina
  • Wichí (Mataco),[60] Argentina and Tarija Department, Bolivia[57]

Southern Cone

Main article: Southern Cone
  • Aché, southeastern Paraguay
  • Alacaluf (Kaweshkar, Halakwulup), Chile
  • Chaná (extinct), formerly Uruguay
  • Chandule (Chandri)
  • Charrúa, southern Brazil and Uruguay
  • Chono (Precolumbian culture), formerly Chiloé Archipelago, Chile
  • Comechingon (Henia-Camiare), Argentina
  • Haush (Manek'enk, Mánekenk, Aush), Tierra del Fuego
  • Het (Querandí) (extinct), formerly Argentinian Pampas
    • Chechehet
    • Didiuhet
    • Taluhet
  • Huarpe (Warpes) (extinct), Strait of Magellan, Chile
    • Allentiac (Alyentiyak)
    • Millcayac (Milykayak)
    • Oico
  • Mapuche (Araucanian), southwestern Argentina and Chile
    • Huilliche (Huillice, Hulliche), Chile
    • Lafquenche
    • Mapuche, southwestern Argentina and Chile
    • Pehuenche, south central Chile and Argentina
    • Picunche, formerly Chile
    • Promaucae, formerly Chile
  • Mbeguá (extinct), formerly Paraná River, Argentina
  • Minuane (extinct), formerly Uruguay
  • Puelche (Guenaken, Pampa) (extinct), Argentinian and Chilean Andes
  • Tehuelche, Patagonia
    • Künün-a-Güna (Gennakenk, Gennaken)
    • Küwach-a-Güna
    • Mecharnúekenk
    • Aónikenk (Zuidelijke Tehuelche)
  • Teushen (Tehues, extinct), Tierra del Fuego
  • Selk'nam (Ona), Tierra del Fuego
  • Yaghan (Yamana), Tierra del Fuego
  • Yaro (Jaro)

Languages

Indigenous languages of the Americas (or Amerindian Languages) are spoken by indigenous peoples from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland, encompassing the land masses which constitute the Americas. These indigenous languages consist of dozens of distinct language families as well as many language isolates and unclassified languages. Many proposals to group these into higher-level families have been made. According to UNESCO, most of the indigenous American languages in North America are critically endangered and many of them are already extinct.[61]


Genetic classification

Further information: Y-DNA haplogroups in Indigenous peoples of the Americas

The haplogroup most commonly associated with Indigenous Americans is Haplogroup Q1a3a (Y-DNA).[62] Y-DNA, like (mtDNA), differs from other nuclear chromosomes in that the majority of the Y chromosome is unique and does not recombine during meiosis. This has the effect that the historical pattern of mutations can easily be studied.[63] The pattern indicates Indigenous Amerindians experienced two very distinctive genetic episodes; first with the initial-peopling of the Americas, and secondly with European colonization of the Americas.[64][65] The former is the determinant factor for the number of gene lineages and founding haplotypes present in today's Indigenous Amerindian populations.[64]

Human settlement of the Americas occurred in stages from the Bering sea coast line, with an initial 20,000-year layover on Beringia for the founding population.[66][67] The micro-satellite diversity and distributions of the Y lineage specific to South America indicates that certain Amerindian populations have been isolated since the initial colonization of the region..[68] The Na-Dené, Inuit and Indigenous Alaskan populations exhibit haplogroup Q (Y-DNA) mutations, however are distinct from other indigenous Amerindians with various mtDNA mutations.[69][70][71] This suggests that the earliest migrants into the northern extremes of North America and Greenland derived from later populations.[72]

See also

Indigenous peoples of the Americas portal

Notes

References

  • D'Azevedo, Warren L., volume editor. Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 11: Great Basin. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1986. ISBN 978-0-16-004581-3.
  • Hann, John H. "The Mayaca and Jororo and Missions to Them", in McEwan, Bonnie G. ed. The Spanish Missions of "La Florida". Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida. 1993. ISBN 0-8130-1232-5.
  • Hann, John H. A History of the Timucua Indians and Missions. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida, 1996. ISBN 0-8130-1424-7.
  • Hann, John H. (2003). Indians of Central and South Florida: 1513-1763. University Press of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-2645-8.
  • Heizer, Robert F., volume editor. Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 8: California. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978. ISBN 978-0-16-004574-5.
  • Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1.
  • Steward, Julian H., editor. Handbook of South American Indians, Volume 4: The Circum-Caribbean Tribes. Smithsonian Institution, 1948.
  • Sturtevant, William C., general editor and Bruce G. Trigger, volume editor. Handbook of North American Indians: Northeast. Volume 15. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978. ASIN B000NOYRRA.
  • Sturtevant, William C., general editor and Raymond D. Fogelson, volume editor. Handbook of North American Indians: Southeast. Volume 14. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution, 2004. ISBN 0-16-072300-0.
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