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Telecommunications in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Telecommunications in Bosnia and Herzegovina include radio, television, fixed and mobile telephones, and the Internet.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Radio and television 2
  • Telephones 3
  • Internet 4
    • Internet censorship and surveillance 4.1
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

History

Telecommunications were well established before the Bosnian war erupted in the early 1990s. The infrastructure included the telephone and telegraph network, as well as a network for transfer of data. The total capacity of Bosnia and Herzegovina telephone exchange facilities was 744,000 telephone lines. The war caused huge material damages to telecommunications facilities. In addition, the administrative division of the country into two entities created a division in the telecommunications sector. Post-war reconstruction of the telecommunications network is aided by an internationally sponsored program under the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

Radio and television

  • Radio stations: 3 large public radio broadcasters and many private radio stations (2010).[1]

The Communications Regulatory Agency (CRA) is charged with regulating the country's radio and television media.[2]

During the Bosnian war, most media became propaganda tools of the authorities, armies, and factions. Since then, efforts have been made - with limited success - to develop media which bridge ethnic boundaries.[3]

TV is the chief news source. The most influential broadcasters are the public radio and TV stations operated by the Bosniak-Croat and Serb entities. The Office of the High Representative (OHR), the leading international civilian agency in Bosnia, oversaw the development of national public broadcasting. The OHR worked to create a non-nationalist, civic media.[3]

Sarajevo is home to Al-Jazeera Balkans TV, an offshoot of the Qatar-based pan-Arab news network, broadcasting in Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian.[3]

Telephones

Telecom and radioline infrastructure on roof-top in the city of Pale, Republika Srpska, Bosnia-Hercegovina (c. 2012).
  • Calling code: +387[1]
  • Total fixed lines: 852,442 lines (2012).[4]
    • 701,070 analog fixed lines (2012).
    •   66,770 ISDN B channels (2012).
    •   29,547 Cellular local loop (CLL) subscriptions (2012).
    •   52,977 Voice over IP subscriptions (2012).
    •     2,078 public phones: (2012).
  • Residential 715,675 fixed lines (2012).[4]
  • Business: 136,767 fixed lines (2012).[4]
  • Total mobile cellular: 3.4 million active subscriptions (2012).[4]
    • 2.8 million prepaid mobile cellular subscriptions (2012).
    • 0.6 million postpaid mobile cellular subscriptions (2012).
  • Mobile cellular penetration:[4]
    • 70.0% of the population covered by 3G and 4G mobile networks (2012).
    • 99.0% of the population covered by GSM mobile networks (2012).
  • Short Message Service: 1.9 billion SMS messages sent (2012).[4]
  • Multimedia Messaging Service: 4.3 million MMS messages sent (2012).[4]
  • Service providers:
    •   3 national fixed-line operators.
    • 13 alternative fixed-line operators (2012).[4]
    •   3 mobile network operators.
    •   1 mobile virtual network operator, with 2 new MVNO operators planned during 2013.[5]

Internet

Internet censorship and surveillance

There are no government restrictions on access to the Internet or reports that the government monitors e-mail or Internet chat rooms.[2]

The Press Council of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the organization responsible for self-regulation of online and print media content. In 2012 the Press Council considered 176 complaints alleging inaccurate or libelous reporting by print and online media (103 for print and 73 for online media), accepting 35 as valid and rejecting 19 as unfounded.[2]

The law provides for freedom of speech and press; however, the government does not always respect press freedom in practice. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina law prohibits hate speech. The Republika Srpska law does not specifically proscribe hate speech, although the law prohibits causing ethnic, racial, or religious hatred. Independent analysts note a continuing tendency of politicians and other leaders to label unwanted criticism as hate speech.[2]

The law prohibits arbitrary interference with privacy, family, home, or correspondence, and the government generally respects these prohibitions in practice.[2]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e "Communications: Bosnia and Herzegovina", World Factbook, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, 28 January 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Bosnia and Herzegovina", Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2012, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, U.S. Department of State, 22 March 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
  3. ^ a b c "Bosnia-Hercegovina profile - Media", BBC News, 18 December 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Telecommunications indicators for 2012. Communications Regulatory Agency of Bosnia and Herzegovina. 18 April 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  5. ^ "Blicnet pokreće uslugu mobilne telefonije!" [Blicnet launches mobile service!] (in Bosnian). Blicnet. 17 May 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2013. 
  6. ^ "Welcome to the UTIC's web pages". University Tele-Informatics Centre (UTIC). Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  7. ^ "NIC.ba Registracija domene" [NIC.ba Domain Registration] (in Bosnian). University Tele-Informatics Centre (UTIC). Retrieved 19 September 2013.  English translation.

External links

  • Communications Regulatory Agency (CRA) of Bosnia and Herzegovina, web site.
  • NIC.ba (Bosnian), .ba domain registrar.


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