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Texas's 1st congressional district

 

Texas's 1st congressional district

Texas's 1st congressional district
Texas's 1st congressional district - since January 3, 2013.
Texas's 1st congressional district - since January 3, 2013.
Current Representative Louie Gohmert (RTyler)
Population (2000) 651,619
Median income $33,461
Ethnicity 74.4% White, 18.4% Black, 0.4% Asian, 9.3% Hispanic, 0.5% Native American, 0.2% other
Cook PVI R+24 (2012)

Texas's First congressional district in the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional district that serves the northeastern portion of the state of Texas. As of the 2000 Census, the First District represents 651,619 people. It consists largely of three small East Texas metropolitan areasLufkin-Nacogdoches, in the south, Longview-Marshall, and Tyler.

The First District once encompassed large parts of North Texas and Central Texas, but as the population of Texas grew, the district got smaller until it only encompassed about half of Northeast Texas.

For most of its history, the district was based in Texarkana. However, in a controversial 2003 redistricting orchestrated by then-House Majority Leader Tom DeLay, Texarkana was drawn out of the district and moved to the neighboring Fourth congressional district. Lufkin, Tyler and Longview were added in its place.

The district was predominantly rural for much of its history, and thus was far friendlier to electing Democrats to Congress even as most of Texas swung toward the Republicans. The district's four-term Democratic incumbent, Max Sandlin, was a particularly severe critic of the DeLay-led redistricting effort, claiming that lumping rural areas with urban ones stifled the voice of rural voters. Indeed, the 2003 redistricting made the district more urban and Republican, especially with the addition of the Republican strongholds of Tyler and Longview. Sandlin was heavily defeated in November 2004 by Republican Louie Gohmert, a longtime judge in the Tyler area. Gohmert is the first Republican to represent the district since Reconstruction. Proving just how Republican the reconfigured 1st was, Gohmert has been reelected five times with virtually no opposition.

The district's best-known congressman, Wright Patman, represented the district for 47 years — the second-longest tenure of anyone in Congress from Texas. He was an early supporter of the New Deal, and later chaired the House Banking Committee for 12 years.

Contents

  • 2012 redistricting 1
  • Election results 2
    • U.S. Representative 2.1
    • President 2.2
  • Demographics 3
  • List of representatives 4
  • Historical district boundaries 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7

2012 redistricting

The 2012 redistricting process changed the district's northern section. All of Marion County, Cass County, and the majority of Upshur County were removed from the district. To compensate this loss, the eastern half of Wood County was added.[1]

Election results

Election results from recent races

U.S. Representative

2004 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Louie Gohmert 157,068 61.5 17.9
Democratic Max Sandlin 96,281 37.7 18.7
Libertarian Dean Tucker 2,158 0.8
Majority 60,787 23.8
Turnout 255,507
Republican gain from Democratic Swing
2006 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Louie Gohmert 104,099 68 6.5
Democratic Roger L. Owen 46,303 30.2 7.5
Libertarian Donald Perkison 2,668 1.7 0.9
Majority 57,796 37.8
Turnout 153,070 40.1
Republican hold Swing
2008 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Louie Gohmert 189,012 87.6 19.6
Independent Roger L. Owen 26,814 12.4
Majority 162,198 75.2
Turnout 215,826 41.0
Republican hold Swing
2010 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Louie Gohmert 129,398 89.7 2.1
Libertarian Charles F. Parkes, III 14,811 10.3
Majority 114,587 79.6
Turnout 144,209 33.2
Republican hold Swing
2012 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Louie Gohmert 178,322 71.4 18.3
Democratic Shirley J. McKellar 67,222 26.9 26.9
Libertarian Clark Patterson 4,114 1.6% 8.7
Majority 111,100 44.5
Turnout 249,658 73.1
Republican hold Swing

President

Year Winner % Margin (%)
2000 George W. Bush 68 32
2004 George W. Bush 69 30
2008 John McCain 69 30
2012 Mitt Romney 72 44

Demographics

  • Population: 651,619 (2000 Census)
  • Under 18: 26.2%
  • Over 65: 14.1%
  • Married 58.7%
  • Non-Hispanic White: 71%
  • Black: 18%
  • Hispanic: 9%
  • Asian:1%
  • Foreign born: 5.3%
  • Language other than English: 9.8%
  • Median household income: $33,461
  • Owner occupied housing: 71.9%
  • Income above $200K: 1.4%

List of representatives

Representative Party Years Electoral history Counties represented
District created December 29, 1845
Vacant December 29, 1845 –
March 30, 1846
 
David S. Kaufman Democratic March 30, 1846 –
January 31, 1851
First elected in 1846

Died
Vacant January 31, 1851 –
March 4, 1851
 
Richardson A. Scurry Democratic March 4, 1851 –
March 3, 1853
Elected in 1850

George W. Smyth Democratic March 4, 1853 –
March 3, 1855
Elected in 1852

Lemuel D. Evans American
(Know-Nothing)
March 4, 1855 –
March 3, 1857
Elected in 1854

John H. Reagan Democratic March 4, 1857 –
March 3, 1861
First elected in 1856

American Civil War/Reconstruction
George W. Whitmore Republican March 30, 1870 –
March 3, 1871
Elected in 1870

William S. Herndon Democratic March 4, 1871 –
March 3, 1875
First elected in 1870

John H. Reagan Democratic March 4, 1875 –
March 3, 1883
Redistricted to the 2nd district

Charles Stewart Democratic March 4, 1883 –
March 3, 1893
First elected in 1882

Joseph C. Hutcheson Democratic March 4, 1893 –
March 3, 1897
First elected in 1892

Thomas H. Ball Democratic March 4, 1897 –
March 3, 1903
First elected in 1896

Morris Sheppard Democratic March 4, 1903 –
March 3, 1913
Redistricted from the 4th district

Horace W. Vaughan Democratic March 4, 1913 –
March 3, 1915
Elected in 1912

Eugene Black Democratic March 4, 1915 –
March 3, 1929
First elected in 1914

Wright Patman Democratic March 4, 1929 –
January 3, 1967
First elected in 1928

Died
January 3, 1959 –
January 3, 1967
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Franklin, Titus, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison
January 3, 1967 –
January 3, 1969
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Wood, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison, Panola, Rusk, Cherokee, Shelby
January 3, 1969 –
January 3, 1973
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Wood, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison, Panola, Rusk, Cherokee, Upshur, Shelby
January 3, 1973 –
January 3, 1975
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Wood, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison, Panola, Rusk, Cherokee, Upshur, Shelby, Fannin, Henderson, San Augustine
January 3, 1975 –
March 7, 1976
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Wood, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison, Panola, Rusk, Cherokee, Upshur, Shelby, Fannin, Henderson, San Augustine, southeastern Hunt, eastern Rains
Vacant March 7, 1976 –
June 19, 1976
 
Sam B. Hall Democratic June 19, 1976 –
January 3, 1983
First elected to finish Patman's term

Resigned to become U.S. District Judge
January 3, 1983 –
May 27, 1985
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Wood, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison, Panola, Rusk, Cherokee, Upshur, Shelby, Henderson, San Augustine, northern Hunt
Vacant May 27, 1985 –
August 3, 1985
 
Jim Chapman Democratic August 3, 1985 –
January 3, 1993
First elected to finish Hall's term
Re-elected in 1986
Re-elected in 1988
Re-elected in 1990
January 3, 1993 –
January 3, 1997
Re-elected in 1992
Re-elected in 1994
Retired to run for U.S. Senate
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Wood, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison, Panola, Rusk, Upshur, Shelby, eastern Hunt, southeastern Gregg, parts of Nacogdoches
Max Sandlin Democratic January 3, 1997 –
January 3, 2003
First elected in 1996
Re-elected in 1998
Re-elected in 2000
January 3, 2003 –
January 3, 2005
Re-elected in 2002
Lost re-election
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Wood, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison, Panola, Rusk, Upshur, Shelby, most of Hunt, northern Nacogdoches
Louie Gohmert Republican January 3, 2005 –
January 3, 2013
First elected in 2004
Re-elected in 2006
Re-elected in 2008
Re-elected in 2010
Upshur, Marion, Harrison, Gregg, Smith, Rusk, Panola, Nacogdoches, Shelby, San Augustine, Sabine, Angelina, southeastern Cass
January 3, 2013 –
Present
Re-elected in 2012
Re-elected in 2014

Historical district boundaries

2007 - 2013

See also

References

  1. ^ http://gis1.tlc.state.tx.us/
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 
  • Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present

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