United States Senate elections, 1809

United States Senate elections, 1808 and 1809

Dates vary by state

12 of the 34 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
18 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Last election 27 (79.4%) 7 seats (20.6%)
Seats before 28 seats (79.4%) 6 (17.6%)
Seats won 27 (79.4%) 7 (20.6%)
Seat change 1 1
Seats up 8 4

Majority party before election

Democratic-Republican

Elected Majority party

Democratic-Republican

The United States Senate election of 1808 was an election which had the Federalist Party gain one seat in the United States Senate, and which coincided with the 1808 Presidential election. The Federalists had gone into the elections with such a small share of Senate seats (6 out of 34, or 18%) that even if they had won every election, they would have still remained a minority caucus.

As this election was prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Senate Party Division, 11th Congress (1809–1811)

  • Majority Party: Democratic-Republican (27)
  • Other Parties: 0
  • Total Seats: 34

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17
Majority → DR18
DR27 DR26 DR25 DR24 DR23 DR22 DR21 DR20 DR19
DR28 F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Beginning of the next Congress

DR7 DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 DR15 DR16 DR17
Majority → DR18
DR27O DR26O DR25O DR24 DR23 DR22 DR21 DR20 DR19
F7+ F6O F5 F4 F3 F2 F1
Key:
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant
Party hold: Incumbent re-elected
O Party hold: New senator elected from same party
+ Party gain: New senator elected from different party
No tag Seat not up for election this time

Complete list of races in 1808 and 1809

Bold states link to specific election articles.

Special elections during the preceding Congress

In these special elections, the winner was elected during 1808 or before March 4, 1809; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Massachusetts
(Class 1)
John Quincy Adams Federalist 1802 Incumbent resigned June 8, 1808, having broken with his party and lost re-election to the next term.
Winner elected June 9, 1808 to finish the term, having already won election to the next term.
Federalist hold
James Lloyd (Federalist)
Ohio
(Class 1)
John Smith Democratic-
Republican
1803 Incumbent resigned April 25, 1808, despite surviving an expulsion trial in the Senate.
Winner elected December 12, 1808 to finish the term.
Democratic-Republican hold
Return J. Meigs, Jr. (Democratic-Republican)
Pennsylvania
(Class 1)
Samuel Maclay Democratic-
Republican
1802 Incumbent resigned January 4, 1809, believing he would lose re-election.
Winner elected January 9, 1809 to finish the term, having already won election to the next term.
Democratic-Republican hold
Michael Leib (Democratic-Republican)

Races leading to the next Congress

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1809; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Connecticut James Hillhouse Federalist 1796
1802
Incumbent re-elected James Hillhouse (Federalist)
Delaware Samuel White Federalist 1801 (Special)
1802
Incumbent re-elected Samuel White (Federalist)
Maryland Samuel Smith Democratic-
Republican
1802 Incumbent re-elected Samuel Smith (Democratic-Republican)
Massachusetts John Quincy Adams Federalist 1802
Federalist hold.
James Lloyd (Federalist)
New Jersey John Condit Democratic-
Republican
1803 (Appointed)
Democratic-Republican hold.
John Lambert (Democratic-Republican)
New York Samuel L. Mitchill Democratic-
Republican
1804 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election in 1809.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Obadiah German (Democratic-Republican)
David Brooks (Federalist)
Samuel L. Mitchill (Democratic-Republican)
Ohio Return J. Meigs, Jr. Democratic-
Republican
1808 (Special) Incumbent re-elected Return J. Meigs, Jr. (Democratic-Republican)
Alexander Campbell (Democratic-Republican)
Pennsylvania Michael Leib Democratic-
Republican
1808 (Special) Incumbent re-elected Michael Leib (Democratic-Republican)
Rhode Island Benjamin Howland Democratic-
Republican
1804 (Special)
Federalist gain
Francis Malbone (Federalist)
Tennessee Joseph Anderson Democratic-
Republican
1799 (Special)
1802
Incumbent re-elected. Joseph Anderson (Democratic-Republican)
Vermont Jonathan Robinson Democratic-
Republican
1807 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. Jonathan Robinson (Democratic-Republican)
Virginia Andrew Moore Democratic-
Republican
1804 (Appointed, Class 2)
1804 (Special)

Democratic-Republican hold.
Stevens Mason (Democratic-Republican)

Special elections during the next Congress

In this special election, the winner was elected in 1809 after March 4; ordered by election date.
State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Daniel Smith Democratic-
Republican
1798 (Special, Class 1)
1799 (Resigned)
1804
Incumbent resigned March 31, 1809.
Winner elected April 11, 1809 to finish the term ending March 4, 1811.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Jenkin Whiteside (Democratic-Republican)
Rhode Island
(Class 1)
Francis Malbone Federalist 1808 Newly-seated incumbent died.
Winner elected June 26, 1809 to finish the term ending March 4, 1815.
Federalist hold.
Christopher G. Champlin (Federalist)
Ohio
(Class 3)
Stanley Griswold Democratic-
Republican
1809 (Appointed) Edward Tiffin (DR) had resigned March 3, 1809.
Successor was appointed May 18, 1809 to continue the term.
Winner elected December 11, 1809 to finish the term ending March 4, 1813.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Alexander Campbell (Democratic-Republican)
Georgia
(Class 3)
John Milledge Democratic-
Republican
1806 (Special)
1806
Incumbent resigned November 14, 1809.
Winner elected November 27, 1809 to finish the term ending March 4, 1813.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Charles Tait (Democratic-Republican)
New Jersey
(Class 2)
John Condit Democratic-
Republican
1803 (Special, Class 1)
1809 (Appointed)
Aaron Kitchell (DR) had resigned March 12, 1809.
Successor was appointed March 21, 1809 to continue the term.
Appointee was later elected on an unknown date to finish the term ending March 4, 1811.
Democratic-Republican hold.
John Condit (Democratic-Republican)

See also

References

  • Party Division in the Senate, 1789-Present, via Senate.gov
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