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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 411: Comparative Studies of American and African Trypanosomiasis

By World Health Organization

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Book Id: WPLBN0000053839
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 1.9 MB
Reproduction Date: 2005
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Title: World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 411: Comparative Studies of American and African Trypanosomiasis  
Author: World Health Organization
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Health., Public health, Wellness programs
Collections: Medical Library Collection, World Health Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: World Health Organization

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Organization, W. H. (n.d.). World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 411. Retrieved from http://worldebookfair.com/


Description
Medical Reference Publication

Excerpt
INTRODUCTION The control of American and African trypanosomiasis involves considerable difficulties, particularly the continental dimensions of the problem, the large numbers of people exposed to the risk of infection, and the lack of a single inexpensive method of mass control that is effective in all epidemiological conditions. The areas principally affected by the diseases are the developing countries, which are unable to use some of the measures that have been developed for epidemiological investigation, control, and surveillance, since these often involve considerable expense, large numbers of trained field workers, and facilities that are not readily available. Progress in the control of American and African trypanosomiasis will, therefore, depend greatly on co-ordinated research to develop simple and inexpensive control methods. It was the task of the Scientific Group to review the advances that have been made, to draw attention to techniques for the study of one disease that could be adapted for the study of the other, and to make recommendations for research, with particular attention to areas in which comparative study is possible. It is believed that a comparative approach will help to elucidate some of the aspects in which the two diseases differ, as well as those in which they are similar. Such clarification would be of great value in the development of improved methods of control.

Table of Contents
CONTENTS Page .Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1 . General considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 . Mor~hological and biological x-ariations between species and strains . . . . 6 2.1 Morphology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.2 Ultrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.3 Immunology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.4 Hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.5 Comparative physiolog~.m. etabolism. and biochemistry . . . . . . . 8 2.6 Trypanosome ~olymorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3 . Immunology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.1 Immunopatholog~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.2 Immunodiagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.3 Characteristics of antigens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.4 Serological tests in the host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.5 A~plicationo f tests in diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3.6 Preparation of antigens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.7 Active immunization with dead and living vaccines . . . . . . . . . 16 4 . Epidemiology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4.1 Reservoir hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 4.2 Man-vector contact and its effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.3 Epidemiological effects of the environment . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 5 . Clinicopathological aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 5.1 Distribution of trypanosomes in host tissues . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 5.2 Site-ofentry lesions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 5.3 Cardiac lesions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5.4 Neurological lesions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 5.5 Clinical manifestations caused by different species and strains . . . . 30 5.6 Congenital trypanosomiasis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 5.7 The role of antigen-antibody reactions in pathogenesis . . . . . . . 31 6 . Chemotherapeutic problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 6.1 Mechanism of drug action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 6.2 Future development of chemotherapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 6.3 Drug resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 7 . Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 7.1 Measurement of infectivity and virulence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 7.2 Maintenance of trvpanosomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 8 . Recommendations for research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 9 . General recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

 

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