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Toxicological Review of 1,1-Dichloroethylene

By Benson, Robert

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Book Id: WPLBN0000064017
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 0.5 MB
Reproduction Date: 2007

Title: Toxicological Review of 1,1-Dichloroethylene  
Author: Benson, Robert
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Ecology, Natural resource issues, Environemtal protection
Collections: Environmental Awareness Library Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: United States Environmental Protection Agency

Citation

APA MLA Chicago

Benson, R. (n.d.). Toxicological Review of 1,1-Dichloroethylene. Retrieved from http://worldebookfair.com/


Description
Excerpt: The purpose of this Toxicological Review is to provide scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment in IRIS pertaining to chronic exposure to 1,1- dichloroethylene. It is not intended to be a comprehensive treatise on the chemical or toxicological nature of 1,1-dichloroethylene. In Section 6, EPA has characterized its overall confidence in the quantitative and qualitative aspects of hazard and dose response. Matters considered in this characterization include knowledge gaps, uncertainties, quality of data, and scientific controversies. This characterization is presented in an effort to make apparent the limitations of the assessment and to aid and guide the risk assessor in the ensuing steps of the risk assessment process.

Table of Contents
CONTENTS —TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW FOR 1,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE (CAS No. 75-35-4) FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v AUTHORS, CONTRIBUTORS, AND REVIEWERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi 1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL INFORMATION RELEVANT TO ASSESSMENTS . . . . 2 3. TOXICOKINETICS RELEVANT TO ASSESSMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4. HAZARD IDENTIFICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.1. STUDIES IN HUMANS—EPIDEMIOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.2. PRECHRONIC AND CHRONIC STUDIES AND CANCER BIOASSAYS IN ANIMALS—ORAL AND INHALATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.2.1. Acute Exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.2.2. Longer-Term Exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.2.3. Chronic Studies and Cancer Bioassays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4.3. REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL STUDIES—ORAL AND INHALATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4.3.1. Direct Infusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4.3.2. Oral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4.3.3. Inhalation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4.4. OTHER STUDIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4.4.1. Developmental Neurotoxicity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4.4.2. Cardiac Sensitization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.4.3. Species Specificity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.4.4. Genetic Toxicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4.5. SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF MAJOR NONCANCER EFFECTS AND MODE OF ACTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.6. WEIGHT-OF-EVIDENCE EVALUATION AND CANCER CHARACTERIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 4.7. SUSCEPTIBLE POPULATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 4.7.1. Possible Childhood Susceptibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 4.7.2. Possible Gender Differences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 5. DOSE-RESPONSE ASSESSMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 5.1. ORAL REFERENCE DOSE (RfD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 5.1.1. Choice of Principal Study and Critical Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 5.1.2. Methods of Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 5.1.3. RfD Derivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

 

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