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World Health Organization : Year 1994 ; World Health Organization, Operational Support in Environmental Health, No. 94.1-3, (Vol3): Gemsiair Methodology Review Handbook Series Volume 3 Measurement of Suspended Particulate Matter in Ambient Air

By A. Van

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Book Id: WPLBN0000117852
Format Type: PDF eBook
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Reproduction Date: 2005
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Title: World Health Organization : Year 1994 ; World Health Organization, Operational Support in Environmental Health, No. 94.1-3, (Vol3): Gemsiair Methodology Review Handbook Series Volume 3 Measurement of Suspended Particulate Matter in Ambient Air  
Author: A. Van
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Health., Public health, Wellness programs
Collections: Medical Library Collection, World Health Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: World Health Organization

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Van, A. (n.d.). World Health Organization : Year 1994 ; World Health Organization, Operational Support in Environmental Health, No. 94.1-3, (Vol3). Retrieved from http://worldebookfair.com/


Description
Medical Reference Publication

Excerpt
The amount of pollution in the air of our cities has been increasing since the industrial revolution. In recent times, the combination of the growth of cities around the world, increased use of vehicles, rapid industrialisation, and deficiencies in both planning and environmental regulations, has led to health and environmental damage in several regions. Results obtained by the GEMStAIR network, based on close t o 2 0 years of data collection and assessment of common air pollutants in almost 50 countries, show that many of the world's population live in cities where air pollution concentrations exceed levels considered to be a threat to human health (WHO guidelines). Although the ambient concentrations of certain air pollutants (SO,, particles and lead) are decreasing in some countries, the level of other pollutants are not. By the year 2000, more then 6 billion people will be living on this planet, and nearly half of them are expected to be in urban areas. The 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) has identified environmental degradation in cities as one of the areas which requires immediate attention. Agenda-21, the sustainable development action plan for the 21st century, highlights in several chapters the importance of urban air pollution and calls upon national and local governments and the international community to increase their efforts towards obtaining reliable and accessible data and information on pollutant concentrations, sources and effects. Cities will need to develop comprehensive air quality management plans and introduce effective control measures. Air quality monitoring is thus of fundamental importance, both for identifying the extent and sources of any pollution problem, and for providing the basis for developing appropriate control strategies and assessing their success.

Table of Contents
CONTENTS 2 . SUSPENDED PARTICULATE MATTER (SPM) DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1. Basic concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.2. International Organization for Standardization (IS01 particle size conventions: definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.3. Comparison bimodal distribution versus IS0 conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3 . SPM PHENOMENOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.1. Size partitioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.1 .1 . Spatial variability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.1.2. Temporal variability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.2. Chemical composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 3.3. Pollution Episodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4 . SPM MEASUREMENT METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.1. Monitoring objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.1 . 1. Impacts on human health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.1.2. Impacts on the environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4.1.3. Choice of size range of sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 4.1.4. Choice of method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4.2. Sampling systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4.2.1. Choice of filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4.2.2. Sampling systems without size-selective inlets . . . . . . . . . . 19 4.2.3. Sampling systems for particle size fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4.2.4. Compliance with particle size fraction definitions . . . . . . . . . 20 4.3. Analysis systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4.3.1. Estimation of Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4.3.1 . 1. Gravimetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4.3.1.2. Radiometry / 13 attenuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4.3.1.3. Reflectometry / Black Smoke(BS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4.3.1.4. Nephelometry / Light scattering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4.3.2. Chemical and physical (size) characterisation of particulate matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4.3.2.1. Particle morphology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4.3.2.2. Analytical Techniques for Elemental Analysis . . . . 24 4.3.2.3. Analytical Techniques for Organic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4.4. IS0 standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

 

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