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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 630: Immunodeficiency

By R. K. Chana

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Book Id: WPLBN0000164703
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 3.4 MB
Reproduction Date: 2005
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Title: World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 630: Immunodeficiency  
Author: R. K. Chana
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Health., Public health, Wellness programs
Collections: Medical Library Collection, World Health Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: World Health Organization

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Chana, R. K. (n.d.). World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 630. Retrieved from http://worldebookfair.com/


Description
Medical Reference Publication

Excerpt
1. INTRODUCTION Immunity results from many complex interacting mechanisms. The skin and mucous membranes are nonspecific barriers to infection and there are numerous other nonspecific factors such as lactoferrin and interferon. Furthermore, yet other nonspecific factors act in conjunction with specific immunity mechanisms ; the complement system and phagocytic cells are prime examples of these factors. Deficiency of an immunity mechanism may involve a specific factor, such as antibody or lymphocytes, or a nonspeciiic factor, such as a complement component. In any case, the deficiency results in some failure of the inflammatory response and more or less severe, but repeated, bacterial, fungal and viral infections ensue as a consequence. This report deals first with the currently established primary deficiencies of some of the specific and nonspecific factors in immunity. It does not attempt to deal with all the primary nonspecific defects in immunity, such as alpha I-antitrypsin deficiency. Secondary deficits in immunity may also lead to the same clinical spectrum of disease as a result of the loss or destruction of both specific and nonspecific factors. Malignancy, malnutrition, cytotoxic drugs and a variety of pathological conditions and metabolic diseases may all lead to secondary immunodeficiency. Furthermore, the relationship between immunity and infection is a complex one in that infection may result from or cause immunodeficiency (ID) and certain infections such as candidiasis, leprosy, malaria and other parasitic infestations can cause both specific and nonspecific ID. During the past decade, knowledge of the immune response has expanded rapidly as a result of experimental work in animals and the study of human patients with both primary and nonspecific IDS. Because of this progress, the primary IDS can now be further classified in the light

Table of Contents
CONTENTS Page 1 . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2 . Cellular basis of the immune response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3 . Tests for assessing immune status . . . . . . . . 3.1 Immunoglobulins and antibodies . . . . . . 3.2 Cell-mediated immunity . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Measurement of T-cell regulatory functions . 3.4 Assays for helper T-cell activity . . . . . . 3.5 Assay for increased suppressor T-cell activity 3.6 Assay for decreased suppressor T-cell activity 3.7 Special studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 . Primary specific immunodeficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4.1 Genetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4.2 Morphology and haematology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4.3 Early diagnosis of primary specific immunodeficiency . . . . . . . . 24 4.4 Classification of primary specific immunodeficiency states . . . . . . 28 4.5 Associated disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 4.6 Treatment of specific immunodeficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 5 . Complement deficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 5.1 Genetic defects in human complement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 5.2 Human complement genetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 5.3 Linkage relationships and chromosomal location of complement genes 48 5.4 Other complement-related functional defects . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 6 . Defects of phagocytic function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 6.1 Defects of bacterial killing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 6.2 Defects of neutrophil mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 6.3 Macrophage clearance function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 6.4 Management of phagocyte disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 7 . Secondary immunodeficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 7.1 Immunodeficiency in protozoal and helrninthicinfections . . . . . . 52 7.2 Immunodeficiency in bacterial infections . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 7.3 Immunodeficiency and viral infections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 7.4 Malnutrition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 7.5 Other pathological conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 8 . Conclusions and recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

 

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