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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 665: Neuronal Aging and Its Implications in Human Neurological Pathology

By M. Bahemuka

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Book Id: WPLBN0000172144
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 3.9 MB
Reproduction Date: 2005
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Title: World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 665: Neuronal Aging and Its Implications in Human Neurological Pathology  
Author: M. Bahemuka
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Health., Public health, Wellness programs
Collections: Medical Library Collection, World Health Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: World Health Organization

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Bahemuka, M. (n.d.). World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 665. Retrieved from http://worldebookfair.com/


Description
Medical Reference Publication

Excerpt
1. INTRODUCTION There is no doubt that one of the hallmarks of the twentieth century is the increase in human life-span, in both industrialized and developing countries. This increase is due to several factors: for example better clinical and pharmacological control of infectious diseases, better sanitation, and improved nutrition. However, such a large demographic change-in the last 80 years the life expectancy in industrialized countries has increased by 5096, resulting in a 20-40% increase in the number of individuals over 65 years of age-also creates substantial social stresses. The number of persons over 65 will continue to increase if cancer and the various vascular diseases are eventually cured. Under these circumstances, age-related disorders, for example, loss of superior cerebral functions (defined as intellectual deterioration associated with the disintegration of the personality) would increase proportionally. Consequently, healthy aging is a challenge for both the individual and society. Since all activities (both intellectual and behavioural) are coordinated and integrated by the nervous system, neuronal aging must be the crux of this biological phenomenon. The neuron differs from all other human cells in that, at birth, an infant possesses its full complement of neurons, which cannot be replaced on subsequent loss. Therefore, most neurons must last a lifetime to ensure functional efficiency.

Table of Contents
CONTENTS Page 1 . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2 . Basic aspects of neuronal aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.1 Morphology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.2 Pathophysiology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.3 Biochemistn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3 . Immunological and viral aspects of neuronal aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 3.1 Heterogenic autoantibody directed against axonal neurofilaments in SSVE. Alzheimer disease. and other chronic CNS diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 3.2 Strain differences among SSVE viruses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 4 . Social. behavioural . and psychological factors in neuronal aging . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 4.1 Social . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 4.2 Psychological . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 4.3 Suicide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 4.4 Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 5 . Clinical aspects of neuronal aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 5.1 Prevalence and mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 5.2 Clinical aspects and diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 5.3 'Diagnostic perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 5.4 Therapeutic perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 5.5 The brain in dementia and aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 6 . Techniques for studying the brain in viva . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 6.1 Oxidative metabolism of intact brain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 6.2 Imaging of the brain in I:~\JO and its role . present and future, in dementia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 7 . Models for the study of pathological neuronal aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 7.1 Morphological markers of .Al zheimer disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 7.2 Experimental models produced by the injection of very small quantities of an uncon\-entional agent into the brain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 8 . Pharmacological control of neuronal aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 9 . Neurosurgical treatment of age-related neurological disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 10. Conclusions and recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

 

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