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The Fundamentals of Neutron Powder Diffraction

By Copley, John R. D.

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Book Id: WPLBN0000693385
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 1.52 MB.
Reproduction Date: 2005

Title: The Fundamentals of Neutron Powder Diffraction  
Author: Copley, John R. D.
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Technology., Reference materials, Technology and literature
Collections: Techonology eBook Collection
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Copley, J. R. (n.d.). The Fundamentals of Neutron Powder Diffraction. Retrieved from http://worldebookfair.com/


Description
Technical Reference Publication

Excerpt
Excerpt: Structure and Properties. Information about the organization of the atoms in materials is essential to any attempt at a detailed understanding of their physical, chemical and mechanical properties. Richard Feynman put it this way (Feynman et al., 1963): ?If they will tell us, more or less, what the earth or the stars are like, and then we can figure it out. In order for physical theory to be of any use, we must know where the atoms are located.? Consider the example of diamond and graphite. Diamond is one of the hardest materials known whereas graphite is so soft that it is used in pencils and as a lubricant, yet both materials are pure carbon. The reason for this dramatic difference is that the atoms are arranged very differently. In diamond they assemble into a rigid three-dimensional network but in graphite they are arranged in parallel sheets and a small force is sufficient to cause the sheets to slip. Examples abound in other fields such as protein chemistry, where the understanding of mechanics.

Table of Contents
Table of Contents I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 I.1 Structure and Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 I.2 Diffraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 I.3 The Meaning of ?Structure? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 I.4 Crystals and Powders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 I.5 Scattering, Diffraction and Absorption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 II. METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 II.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 II.2 Basic Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 II.3 Instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 II.4 The BT1 Spectrometer at the NIST Research Reactor . . .8 II.5 Scattering of Neutrons and X-rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 II.6 Absorption of Neutrons and X-rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 II.7 Incoherent Scattering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 II.8 Atomic Disorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 II.9 Magnetic Scattering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 II.10 Rietveld Profile Refinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 III. EXAMPLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 III.1 High Temperature Superconductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 III.2 Colossal Magnetoresistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 III.3 Residual Stress Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 III.4 Carbon-60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34

 

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